Silage production and utilisation : proceedings of the XIVth International Silage Conference, a satellite workshop of the XXth International Grasslad Congress, July 2005, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Intended for those involved in forage conservation, this book provides an insight into practices and the science underpinning forage conservation. It focuses on developments in feeding of beef and dairy cattle with conserved forage, with particular emphasis on factors influencing intake, digestion, and animal performance.
Print Book, English, 2005
Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, 2005
Conference papers and proceedings
287 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Foreword 7; Keynote presentations 17; An overview of silage production and utilisation in Ireland (1950-2005) 19; C.S. Mayne and P. O'Kiely; Grass silage: factors affecting efficiency of N utilisation in milk production 35; P. Huhtanen and K.J. Shingfield; Recent developments in feeding beef cattle on grass silage-based diets 51; M. McGee; Ensiled maize and whole crop wheat forages for beef and dairy cattle: effects on animal performance 65; T.W.J. Keady; Update on technologies for producing and feeding silage 83; P.D. Forristal and P. O'Kiely; Silage production from tropical forages 97; L.G. Nussio; Recent developments in methods to characterise the chemical and biological parameters of grass silage 109; R.S. Park, R.E. Agnew and M.G. Porter; Advances in silage quality in the 21st Century 121; D.R. Davies, M.K. Theodorou, A.H. Kingston-Smith and R.J. Merry; Section 1: A. Effect of conserved feeds on milk production 135; The effect of grass silage chop length on dairy cow performance 137; A.T. Randby; Whole crop silage from barley fed in combination with red clover silage to dairy cows 138; J. Bertilsson and M. Knicky; Responses to grass or red clover silages cut at two stages of growth in dairy cows 139; A. Vanhatalo, K. Kuoppala, S. Ahvenjarvi and M. Rinne; The effect of chop length and additive on silage intake and milk production in cows 140; V. Toivonen and T. Heikkila; Effect of supplementing grass silage with incremental levels of water soluble carbohydrate on in vitro rumen microbial growth and N use efficiency 141; D.R. Davies, D.K. Leemans and R.J. Merry; Effects of access time to feed and sodium bicarbonate in cows given different silages 142; T. Heikkila and V. Toivonen; Dairy cow performance associated with two contrasting silage feeding systems 143; C.P. Ferris, D.C. Patterson, R.C. Binnie and J.P. Frost; Pea-barley bi-crop silage in milk production 144; M. Tuori, P. Pursiainen, A.-R. Leinonen and V. Karp; Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets 145; E. Staszak and J. Mikolajczak; Feeding with badly preserved silages and occurrence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows 146; F. Vicente, B. de la Roza, A. Argamenteria, M.L. Rodriguez and M. Pelaez; Modelling contamination of raw milk with butyric acid bacteria spores 147; M.M.M. Vissers, F. Driehuis, P. de Jong, M.C. te Giffel and J.M.G. Lankveld; Use of a dairy whole farm nutrient balance education tool to teach the importance of forages in the context of nutrient management concepts at the whole-farm level 148; J.H. Harrison and T.D. Nennich; Feeding mixed grass-clover silages with elevated sugar contents to dairy cows 149; J. Bertilsson. Section 1: B. Effect of conserved feeds on meat production 151; An evaluation of grain processing and storage method, and feed leel on the performance and meat quality of beef cattle offered two contrasting grass silages 153; T.W.J. Keady, F.O. Lively and D.J. Kilpatrick; Nutritive value for finishing beef steers of wheat grain conserved by different techniques 154; P. Stacey, P. O'Kiely, A.P. Moloney and F.P. O'Mara; Effect of feeding red clover, lucerne and kale silage on the voluntary intake and liveweight gain of growing lambs 155; R. Fychan, C.L. Marley, M.D. Fraser and R. Jones; The effects of alfalfa silage harvesting systems on dry matter intake of Friesland dairy ewes in late pregnancy 156; H.F. Elizalde; Replacement of maize/soybean meal concentrate by high moisture maize grain plus wholeseed soybean silage for cattle 157; C.C. Jobim, A.F. Branco, V.F. Gai and U. Cecato; Effect of additive treatment on meat quality 158; V. Vrotniakiene and J. Jatkauskas; Blood meat as a source of histidine for cattle fed grass silage and barley 159; R. Berthiaume and C. Lafreniere; An evaluation of the inclusion of alternative forages with grass silage-based diets on carcass composition and meat quality of beef cattle offered two contrasting grass silages 160; T.W.J. Keady, F.O. Lively, D.J. Kilpatrick and B.W. Moss; Section 2: Alternative forages 161; Effects of feeding legume silage with differing tannin levels on lactating dairy cattle 163; U.C. Hymes Fecht, G.A. Broderick and R.E. Muck; NDF digestion in dairy cows fed grass or red clover silages cut at two stages of growth 164; K. Kuoppala, S. Ahvenjarvi, M. Rinne and A. Vanhatalo; The effects of maize and whole crop wheat silages and quality of grass silage on the performance of lactating dairy cows 165; D.C. Patterson and D.J. Kilpatrick; The feeding value of conserved whole-crop wheat and forage maize relative to grass silage and ad-libitum concentrates for beef cattle 166; K. Walsh, P. O'Kiely and F. O'Mara; Sustained aerobic stability of by-products silage stored as a total mixed ration 167; N. Nishino, H. Hattori and H. Wada; Evaluation of narrow-row forage maize in field-scale studies 168; W.J. Cox, J.H. Cherney and D.J.R. Cherney; Ensiling safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) as an alternative winter forage crop in Israel 169; Z.G. Weinberg, S.Y. Landau, A. Bar-Tal, Y. Chen, M. Gamburg, S. Brener and L. Devash; Effect of variety and species on the chemical composition of Lotus when ensiled 170; C.L. Marley, R. Fychan and R. Jones; Effect of additives at harvest on the digestibility in lambs of whole crop barley or wheat silage 171; S. Muhonen, I. Olsson and P. Lingvall; Effects of varying dietary ratios of lucerne to maize silage on production and microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows 172; G.A. Broderick and A.F. Brito; Effects of two different chopping lengths of maize silage on silage quality and dairy performance 173; K. Mahlkow and J. Thaysen; Use of silage additives in ensiling of whole-crop barley and wheat - A comparison of round big bales and precision chopped silages 174; M. Knicky and P. Lingvall; Cob development in forage maize: influence of harvest date, cultivar and plastic mulch 175; E.M. Little, P. O'Kiely, J.C. Crowley and G.P. Keane; Yield and composition of forage maize: interaction of harvest date, cultivar and plastic mulch 176; E.M. Little, P. O'Kiely, J.C. Crowley and G.P. Keane. Parameters of ensiled maize with biological and chemical additives 177; J. Grajewsk, A. Potkanski, K. Raczkowska-Werwinska, M. Twaruzek and B. Miklaszewska; Ensiling of tannin-containing sorghum grain 178; E.M. Ott, Y. Acosta Aragon and M. Gabel; Fermentation characteristics of maize/sesbania bi-crop silage 179; M. Kondo, J. Yanagisawa, K. Kita and H. Yokota; The influence of crop maturity and type of baler on whole crop barley silage production 180; P. Lingvall, M. Knicky, B. Frank, B. Rustas and J. Wallsten; Effect of stage of maturity on the nutrient content of alfalfa 181; Y. Tyrolova and A. Vyborna; Field beans and spring wheat as whole crop silage: yield, chemical composition and fermentation characteristics 182; L. Ericson, K. Arvidsson and K. Martinsson; Utilisation of whole-crop pea silages differing in condensed tannin content as a replacement for soya bean meal in the diet of dairy cows 183; K.J. Hart, R.G. Wilkinson, L.A. Sinclair and J.A. Huntington; Ensiled high moisture barley or dry barley in the grass silage-based diet of dairy cows 184; S. Jaakkola, E. Saarisalo and R. Kangasniemi; Effects of species, maturity and additive on the feed quality of whole crop cereal silage 185; E. Nadeau; Comparison of different maize hybrids cultivated and fermented with or without sorghum 186; Sz. Orosz, Z. Bellus, Zs. Kelemen, E. Zerenyi and J. Helembai; Utilisation of coffee grounds for total mixed ration silage 187; C. Xu, Y. Cai, N. Hino, N. Yoshida and M. Ogawa; Forage preferences of horses 188; C.E. Muller; Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques 189; The effect of silage harvester type on harvesting efficiency 191; J.P. Frost and R.C. Binnie; Harvesting silage with two types of silage trailer (feed rotor with knives and precision chop) 192; H. Arvidsson and P. Lingvall; The effects of a new plastic film on the microbial and fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass bale silages 193; G. Borreani and E. Tabacco; Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques; A. Silage fermentation 195; Influence of different alfalfa-grass mixtures and the use of additives on nutritive value and fermentation of silage 197; P. Lattemae and U. Tamm; The effect of neutralising formic acid on fermentation of fresh and wilted grass silage 198; E. Saarisalo and S. Jaakkola; Effects of inoculation of LAB on fermentation pattern and clostridia spores in easily ensilable grass silages 199; J. Thaysen, G. Pahlow and E. Mathies; Effect of biological additives in red clover - timothy conservation 200; A. Olt, H. Kaldmae, E. Songisepp and O. Kart; Application of a new inoculant "Chikuso-1" for silage preparation of forage paddy rice 201; Y. Cai, C. Xu, S. Ennahar, N. Hino, N. Yoshida and M. Ogawa; Synergism of chemical and microbial additives on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) silage fermentation 202; T.F. Bernardes, G.R. Siqueira, R.P. Schocken-Iturrino, A.P.T.P. Roth and R.A. Reis; The influence of the application of a biological additive on the fermentation process of red clover silage 203; L'. Rajcakova, R. Mlynar and M. Gallo; Inoculant effects on ensiling and in vitro gas production in lucerne silage 204; R.E. Muck, I. Filya and F.E. Contreras-Govea. Effects of stage of growth and inoculation on fermentation quality of field pea silage 205; G. Borreani, L. Cavallarin, S. Antoniazzi and E. Tabacco; A novel bacterial silage additive effective against clostridial fermentation 206; E. Mayrhuber, M. Holzer, W. Kramer and E. Mathies; In vitro gas production and bacterial biomass estimation for lucerne silage inoculated with one of three lactic acid bacterial inoculants 207; F.E. Contreras-Govea, R.E. Muck, I. Filya, D.R. Mertens and P.J. Weimer; Correlation between epiphytic microflora and microbial pollution and fermentation quality of silage made from grasses 208; B. Osmane and J. Bluzmanis; Hygienic value nad mycotoxins level of grass silage in bales for horses 209; A. Potkanski, J. Grajewski, K. Raczkowska-Werwinska, B. Miklaszewska, A. Gubala, M. Selwet and M. Szumacher-Strabel; Polyphenol oxidase activity and in vitro proteolytic inhibition in grasses 210; J.M. Marita, R.D. Hatfield and G.E. Brink; The effect of dry matter content and inoculation with lactic acid bacteria on the residual water soluble carbohydrate content of silages prepared from a high sugar grass cultivar 211; D.R. Davies, D.K. Leemans, E.L. Bakewell and R.J. Merry; Using the red clover polyphenol oxidase gene to inhibit proteolytic activity in lucerne 212; R.D. Hatfield, M.L. Sullivan and R.E. Muck; New results on inhibition of clostridia development in silages 213; E. Kaiser, K. Weiss and I. Polip; Ensilability and silage quality of different cocksfoot varieties 214; U. Wyss; Ensiling characteristics of sudangrass silage treated with green tea leaf waste or green tea polyphenols 215; M. Kondo, K. Kita and H. Yokota; Effects of silage preparation and microbial silage additives on biogas production from whole crop maize silage 216; M. Neureiter, C. Perez Lopez, H. Pichler, R. Kirchmayr and R. Braun; A 16S rDNA-based quantitative assay for monitoring Lactobacillus plantarum in silage 217; M. Klocke, K. Mundt, C. Idler, P. O'Kiely, S. Barth; A comparison of the efficacy of an ultra-low volume applicator for liquid-applied silage inoculants with that of a conventional applicator 218; G. Marley, G. Pahlow, H.-H. Herrmann and T.R. Owen; Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques; B. Aerobic stability 219; Improving the aerobic stability of whole-crop cereal silages 221; I. Filya, E. Sucu and A. Karabulut; Aerobic stability and nutritive value of low dry matter maize silage treated with a formic acid-based preservative 222; I. Filya, E. Sucu and A. Karabulut; Microbial changes and aerobic stability in high moisture maize silages inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri 223; R.A. Reis, E.O. Almeida, G.R. Siqueira, T.F. Bernardes, E.R. Janusckiewicz and M.T.P. Roth; Effect of residual sugar in high sugar grass silages on aerobic stability 224; G. Pahlow, R.J. Merry, P. O'Kiely, T. Pauly and J.M. Greef; An in vitro study on the influence of residual sugars on aerobic changes in grass silages 225; S.D. Martens, G. Pahlow and J.M. Greef; The effects of the growth stage and inoculant on fermentation and aerobic stability of whole-plant grain sorghum silage 226; E. Tabacco and G. Borreani; Perennial ryegrasses bred for contrasting sugar contents: manipulating fermentation and aerobic stability using wilting and additives (1) (EU FP V-Project 'SweetGrass') 227; P. O'Kiely, H. Howard, G. Pahlow, R. Merry, T. Pauly and F.P. O'Mara. Perennial ryegrasses bred for contrasting sugar contents: manipulating fermentation and aerobic stability of unwilted silage using additives (2) (EU-Project 'SweetGrass') 228; H. Howard, P. O'Kiely, G. Pahlow and F.P. O'Mara; Perennial ryegrasses bred for contrasting sugar contents: manipulating fermentation and aerobic stability of wilted silage using additives (3) (EU-Project 'SweetGrass') 229; H. Howard, P. O'Kiely, G. Pahlow and F.P. O'Mara; The effect of additive containing formic acid on quality and aerobic stability of silages made of endophyte-infected green forage 230; L. Podkowka, J. Mikolajczak, E. Staszak and P. Dorszewski; The effect of acetic acid on the aerobic stability of silages and on intake 231; B. Ruser and J. Kleinmans; Effectiveness of Lactobacillus buchneri to improve aerobic stability and reducing mycotoxin levels in maize silages under field conditions 232; A. Bach, C. Iglesias, C. Adelantado and M.A. Calvo; The effect of Lalsil Dry inoculant on the aerobic stability of lucerne silage 233; J.P. Szucs and Z. Avasi; Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques C. Nutritive value 235; Ensiling characteristics and ruminal degradation of Italian ryegrass with or without wilting and added cell wall degrading enzymes 237; Y. Zhu, H. Jianguo, Z. He, X. Qingfang, B. Chunsheng and N. Nishino; Quality and nutritive value of grass-legume ensiled with inoculant Lactisil 300 238; J. Jatkauskas and V. Vrotniakiene; Effect of additives in grass silage on rumen parameters in Rusitec 239; A. Potkanski, A. Cieslak, K. Raczkowska-Werwinska, M. Szumacher-Strabel and A. Gubala; The quality and nutritive value of big bale silage harvested from bog meadows 240; H. Zurek, B. Wrobel and J. Zastawny; The aerobic stability and nutritive value of grass silage ensilaged with bacterial additives 241; B. Wrobel and J. Zastawny; Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques D. Big bale silage production 243; Factors affecting bag silo densities and losses 245; R.E. Much and B.J. Holmes; Transport of wrapped silage bales 246; A.T. Randby and T. Fyhri; Wrapping rectangular bales with plastic to preserve wet hay or make haylage 247; D. Undersander, T. Wood and W. Foster; Bacteria and yeast in round bale silage on a sample of farms in County Meath, Ireland 248; J. McEniry, P. O'Kiely, N.J.W. Clipson, P.D. Forristal and E.M. Doyle; Schizophyllum on baled grass silage in Ireland: national farm survey 2004 249; M. O'Brien, P. O'Kiely, P.D. Forristal and H. Fuller; Bagged silage: Mechanical treatment applied by packing rotor improves fermentation 250; M. Sundberg and T. Pauly; Carbon dioxide permeation properties of polyethylene films used to wrap baled silage 251; C. Laffin, G.M. McNally, P.D. Forristal, P. O'Kiely and C.M. Small; National survey to establish the extent of visible mould on baled grass silage in Ireland and the identity of the predominant fungal species 252; M. O'Brien, P. O'Kiely, P.D. Forristal and H. Fuller; Section 4: Ensilage of tropical forages 253; Effect of ensiling temperature, delayed sealing, and simulated rainfall on the fermentation and aerobic stability of maize silage grown in a sub-tropical climate 255; A.T. Adesogan and S.C. Kim. Effect of different densities on tropical grass silages 256; T.F. Bernardes, R.C. Amaral, G.R. Siqueira and R.A. Reis; Sugarcane silage compared with traditional roughage sources on performance of dairy cows 257; O.C.M. Queiroz, L.G. Nussio, M.C. Santos, J.L. Ribeiro, P. Schmidt, M. Zopollatto, M.C. Junqueira, M.S. Camargo, S.G.T. Filho, L.G. Vieira, M.O. Trivelin, L.J. Mari and D.P. Souza; Moisture control, inoculant and particle size in tropical grass silages 258; S.F. Paziani, L.G. Nussio, D.R.S. Loures, L.J. Mari, J.L. Ribeiro, P. Schmidt, M. Zopollatto, M.C. Junqueiro and A.F. Pedroso; Stability of silage wrapped round bales in Reunion Island 259; P. Grimaud, V. Barbet-Massin, P. Thomas and D. Verrier; Ensilage of tropical grasses and legumes using a small-scale technique 260; M. Delacollette, S. Adjolohoun, R. Agneesens and A. Buldgen; The use of Lactobacillus buchneri inoculation to decrease ethanol and 2,3-butanediol production in whole crop rice silage 261; N. Nishino and H. Hattori; Microorganism occurrence in Tanzania (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania) grass silage exposed to the environment 262; R.M. Coan, R.A. Reis, G.R. Garcia, R.P. Schocken-Iturrino and E.D. Contato; Forage variety and maturity on fermentative losses of sugarcane silages added with urea 263; P. Schmidt, L.G. Nussio, C.M.B. Nussio, A.A. Rodrigues, P.M. Santos, J.L. Ribeiro, L.J. Mari, M. Zopollatto, M.C. Santos, O.C.M. Queiroz and D.P. Souza; Effect of moisture on the fermentation and the utilisation by cattle of silages made from tropical grasses 264; M. Niimi, O. Kawamura, K. Fukuyama and S. Sei; Section 5: Chemical and biological characterisation of silages 265; Estimation of legume silage digestibility with various laboratory methods 267; A. Olt, M. Rinne, J. Nousiainen, M. Tuori, C. Paul, M.D. Fraser and P. Huhtanen; Evaluation of prediction equations for metabolisable energy concentration in grass silage used in different energy feeding systems 268; T. Yan and R.E. Agnew; The effect of fermentation quality on voluntary intake of grass silage by growing steers 269; S.J. Krizsan and A.T. Randby; Determination of toxic activity of mould-damaged silage with an in vitro method 270; A. Solyakov and T. Pauly; Butyric acid bacteria spores in whole crop maize silage 271; F. Driehuis and M.C. te Giffel; Effects of the stage of growth and inoculation on proteolysis in field pea silage 272; L. Cavallarin, G. Borreani, S. Antoniazzi and E. Tabacco; Ruminal proteolysis in forages with distinct endopeptidases activities 273; G. Pichard, C. Tapia and R. Larrain; Effects of particle size in forage samples for protein breakdown studies 274; G. Pichard and C. Tapia; A new system for the evaluation of the fermentation quality of silages 275; E. Kaiser and K. Weiss; Prediction of indigestible NDF content of grass and legume silages by NIRS 276; L. Nyholm, M. Rinne, M. Hellamaki, P. Huhtanen and J. Nousiainen; Analysis of silage fermentation characteristics using transflectance measurements by near infrared spectroscopy 277; A. Martinez, A. Soldado, R. Garcia, D. Sanchez and B. de la Roza-Delgado; A simple method for the correction of fermentation losses measured in laboratory silos 278; F. Weissbach; Development of a method for the fast and complete assessment of quality characteristics in undried grass silages by means of an NIR-diode array spectrometer 279; H. Gibaud, C. Paul, J.M. Greef and B. Ruser. Prediction of red clover content in mixed swards by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy 280; B. Deprez, D. Stilmant, C. Clement, C. Decamps and A. Peeters; Keyword index 281; Author index 285.