Providing the background information behind clinical practice, with in-depth peer-reviewed articles and broad coverage of the field, The ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine and its digital counterpart, ESC CardioMed, are invaluable resources for those working in cardiovascular medicine across the world.
Print Book, English, 2018
OXFORD University Press, [Place of publication not identified], 2018
9780198784906, 0198784902
PART 1. Introduction to the cardiovascular systemSection 1. Cardiovascular history and physical examinationSection editor: Nicholas Boon1.1: Andrew Elder, Nicholas A. Boon, and Alan G. Japp: Approach to cardiovascular assessment1.2: Alan G. Japp, Iain Simpson, Stephen Pettit, Arthur Yue, and Junaid Zaman: Cardiovascular symptoms1.3: Stuart Pringle, Samantha Fitzsimmons, Ingibjorg Gudmundsdottir, and Joseph B. Esterson: Cardiovascular signsSection 2. Developmental biology of the heartSection editor: Miguel Torres2.1: Robert G. Kelly: Cardiac embryogenesis2.2: Miguel Torres: The molecular basis of cardiac embryogenesis2.3: Maurice J. B. van den Hoff and Antoon F. M. Moorman: From heart-forming region to ballooning chambers2.4: José M. Pérez-Pomares and José L. de la Pompa: Development of the ventricles and valves2.5: Jan Hendrik van Weerd and Vincent M. Christoffels: Development of the cardiac conduction system2.6: Thomas J. Cahill and Paul R. Riley: Epicardial and coronary vascular development2.7: Mark H. Soonpaa and Loren J. Field: Cardiomyocyte development from mid-gestation through preadolescenceSection 3. Functional anatomy of the heartSection editor: Siew Yen Ho3.1: Sabine Ernst and Siew Yen Ho: Introduction3.2: Ammar M. Killu and Samuel J. Asirvatham: Cardiac anatomy in the interventional era: an overview3.3: Taka-aki Matsuyama and Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda: Normal conduction system, coronary arteries, and coronary veins3.4: Damian Sanchez-Quintana and José Angel Cabrera: Normal atrial and ventricular myocardial structures3.5: Philip J. Kilner and Sonya V. Babu-Narayan: The heart as a functional unit3.6: Philip J. Kilner and Sonya V. Babu-Narayan: Ventricular structure and function3.7: Luigi Badano and Denisa Muraru: Functional anatomy of atria3.8: Fahd Makhdom, Pascal Thériault-Lauzier, Siew Yen Ho, and Nicolo Piazza: Functional anatomy of left heart valves3.9: Christine Selton-Suty, Olivier Huttin, Clément Venner, and Yves Juillière: Functional anatomy of right heart valves3.10: Robert Manka and Sabrina Oebel: Functional anatomy of myocardial perfusionSection 4. Cardiovascular physiologySection editor: Guido Grassi4.1: Sándor J. Kovács: The heart as a pump: governing principles4.2: Marek Malik: Cardiac electrophysiology4.3: Christian Seiler: Cardiovascular physiology: regulation of coronary circulation4.4: Gino Seravalle and Guido Grassi: Regulation of blood pressure4.5: Markus P. Schlaich: Heart/kidney interactions4.6: Ross Arena, Dejana Popovic, Marco Guazzi, Amy McNeil, and Michael Sagner: Cardiovascular response to exercise4.7: Jens Barthelmes and Isabella Sudano: Cardiovascular response to mental stress4.8: Naima Covassin and Virend K. Somers: The cardiovascular system during sleep4.9: Magnus Bäck, Laure Joly, Nicolas Sadoul, and Athanase Benetos: The ageing heart4.10: Sebastian Ewen, Saarraaken Kulenthiran, and Felix Mahfoud: Alterations in cardiovascular physiology in pathological statesSection 5. Cardiovascular pharmacologySection editor: Faiez Zannad5.1: João Pedro Ferreira and Patrick Rossignol: Renin-angiotensin system and neprilysin5.2: Faiez Zannad and João Pedro Ferreira: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists5.3: Atul Pathak: Autonomic nervous system drugs5.4: Stéphane Laurent: Pharmacology of vasodilators5.5: Mattia Arrigo and Alexandre Mebazaa: Positive inotropes5.6: Federico Guerra and Alessandro Capucci: Antiarrhythmics5.7: Tabassome Simon: Pharmacology of oral antiplatelet drugs5.8: Freek W. A. Verheugt: Fibrinolytic therapy5.9: Cesare R. Sirtori and Massimiliano Ruscica: Lipid-lowering drugs5.10: Pierre-Jean Saulnier and Samy Hadjadj: Oral diabetes treatments and cardiovascular disease5.11: Kevin Damman: Renal pharmacology for the cardiologist5.12: Keld P. Kjeldsen, Juan Tamargo, and Thomas Andersen Schmidt: Potassium binders5.13: Pauline Bosco-Levy, Julien Bezin, Francesco Salvo, and Nicholas Moore: Cardiovascular effects of non-cardiovascular drugs5.14: Jeffrey K. Aronson: Drug-drug interactions5.15: Jonathan Michel and Robert A. Byrne: Local drugs in interventional cardiology pharmacologySection 6. AnticoagulationSection editor: Raffaele DeCaterina6.1: Pier Mannuccio Mannucci: An overview of haemostasis, in relation to atherothrombotic, thromboembolic, and venous cardiovascular disease6.2: Fedor Bachmann: Current targets of anticoagulants6.3: Renate Schnabel, Dipak Kotecha, and Paulus Kirchhof: Epidemiology of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in heart disease6.4: Freek W. A. Verheugt: Unfractionated heparin6.5: Paul Guedeney, Mathieu Kerneis, Johanne Silvain, Gilles Montalescot, and Jean-Philippe Collet: Low-molecular-weight heparin6.6: Michiel Coppens: Fondaparinux and its derivatives6.7: Davide Capodanno: Bivalirudin and argatroban6.8: Marcel Levi: Reversal of parenteral anticoagulants6.9: Jørgen Jespersen and Jane Skov: Vitamin K antagonists6.10: Thomas Vanassche and Peter Verhamme: The NOACs: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics6.11: Jeffrey Weitz: The NOACs: clinical pharmacology6.12: Felicita Andreotti, Eliano Pio Navarese, and Filippo Crea: The NOACs in special situations: the elderly, renal impairment, combination with antiplatelet agents and thrombolytics6.13: Joanne van Ryn: Reversal of oral anticoagulants6.14: Christina Reith and Colin Baigent: Epidemiological data on the use of traditional anticoagulants in cardiovascular diseaseSection 7. Epidemiology and global burdenSection editor: Sumeet Chugh7.1: Sumeet S. Chugh: Strategies for assessment of global disease burden7.2: George A. Mensah: Epidemiology and global burden of hypertension7.3: Andrew E. Moran: Epidemiology and global burden of ischaemic heart disease7.4: James D. Wilkinson, Ashwin Kumar, Joslyn A. Westphal, Jason D. Czachor, Hiedy Razoky, and Steven E. Lipshultz: Epidemiology and global burden of cardiomyopathy7.5: Aapo L. Aro and Sumeet S. Chugh: Epidemiology and global burden of arrhythmias7.6: Dianne Sika-Paotonu, Andrea Beaton , and Jonathan Carapetis: Epidemiology and global burden of rheumatic heart disease7.7: Siva Ketha and Leslie T. Cooper: Epidemiology and global burden of myocarditis and pericarditis7.8: Imad M. Tleyjeh and Aref A. Bin Abdulhak: Epidemiology and global burden of infective endocarditis7.9: Holger Reinecke: Epidemiology and global burden of peripheral arterial disease and aortic aneurysmsPART 2. InvestigationsSection 8. ElectrocardiogramSection editor: Antonio Bayes de Luna8.1: Antonio Bayes de Luna: Introduction8.2: Adrian Baranchuk and Bryce Alexander: Atrial abnormalities8.3: Ljuba Bacharova and Harvey Estes: Ventricular hypertrophy8.4: Antonio Bayes de Luna and Marcelo Elizari: Intraventricular conduction disturbances8.5: Miguel Fiol and Antonio Bayes de Luna: ECG patterns of ischaemia and necrosis8.6: Wojciech Zareba and Pyotr Platonov: ECG patterns related to arrhythmias and sudden death: channelopathies, early repolarization, and preexcitiation8.7: Angel Moya: ECG in syncope, palpitations, dyspnoea, and chest pain8.8: Antonio Bayes de Luna and Günter Breithardt: The abnormal ECG without apparent heart disease and the normal ECG in serious heart diseases: two extremes8.9: Iwona Cygankiewicz: Ambulatory ECG monitoringSection 9. Chest radiographySection editor: Christian Herold9.1: Christian Loewe and Dietrich Beitzke: Normal anatomy with a focus on the cardiac silhouette and the great vessels9.2: Massimo Pistolesi and Mariaelena Occhipinti: Pulmonary venous hypertension9.3: Thomas Henzler: Pulmonary arterial hypertension and acute and chronic thromboembolism9.4: Tomas Franquet: Pulmonary infections9.5: Nicola Sverzellati, Gianluca Milanese, and Mario Silva: Focal abnormalities9.6: Nicholas Screaton and Gianluca Milanese, and Mario Silva: Lines, tubes, and implantable devicesSection 10. Cardiac ultrasoundFrank Flachskampf10.1: Jens-Uwe Voigt: Principles of echocardiographic imaging and velocity assessment by Doppler and speckle tracking10.2: Thomas Binder: Technical equipment for echocardiography10.3: Thomas Binder: Transthoracic echocardiography and the standard examination of specific cardiac structures10.4: Roxy Senior and Nikolaos Karogiannis: Stress echocardiography10.5: Anastasia Vamvakidou and Roxy Senior: Contrast echocardiography10.6: Francesco F. Faletra, Laura A. Leo, Tiziano Moccetti, and Mark J. Monaghan: Three-dimensional echocardiography10.7: Thomas H. Marwick: Coronary heart disease10.8: Laura Ernande: Hypertension and diabetes10.9: Ruxandra Beyer and Frank A. Flachskampf: Transoesophageal echocardiography10.10: Jens-Uwe Voigt: Left ventricular function, heart failure, and resynchronization therapy10.11: Satoshi Nakatani: Assist devices10.12: Thor Edvardsen: Cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and the transplanted heart10.13: Damien Voilliot and Patrizio Lancellotti: Cardiac valves10.14: Mehdi Eskandari and Mark J. Monaghan: Echocardiography in transcatheter aortic valve implantation10.15: Mehdi Eskandari and Mark J. Monaghan: Transcatheter mitral valve repair: from edge-to-edge to annuloplasty10.16: Felix C. Tanner and Rolf Jenni: Prosthetic valve evaluation10.17: Petros Nihoyannopoulos and Julia Grapsa: Pulmonary hypertension and the right ventricle10.18: Arturo Evangelista and José Rodríguez-Palomares: Echocardiographic assessment: diseases of the aorta10.19: Bogdan Popescu, Maria-Magdalena Gurzun, and Carmen Ginghina: Atrial fibrillation, cardiogenic embolism, and tumors10.20: Aleksandar N. Neskovic, Ivan Stankovic and Predrag Milicevic: Emergency echocardiographySection 11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonanceSection editor: Dudley Pennell11.1: Alicia Maceira: Normal anatomy and function11.2: Sonia Nielles-Vallespin: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics, techniques, and contrast agents11.3: Jurg Schwitter: Coronary artery disease11.4: Matthias Friedrich and Fabian Siepen: Cardiomyopathies11.5: Sonya Babu-Narayan: Congenital heart disease11.6: Saul Myerson: Valvular heart disease11.7: Chun Yuan, Zach Miller, and Jianming Cai: Atherosclerosis imaging11.8: Jan Bogaert: Angiography11.9: Massimo Lombardi and Antonia Camporeale: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in less common pathologiesSection 12. Cardiovascular computed tomographySection editor: Stephan Achenbach12.1: Stephan Achenbach: Technology of cardiac computed tomography12.2: Todd C. Villines, Joshua Mitchell, and Michael K. Cheezum: Coronary calcium12.3: Koen Nieman: Coronary computed tomography angiography: detection of coronary artery stenosis12.4: Pál Maurovich-Horvat: Coronary computed tomography angiography: imaging of coronary atherosclerotic plaque12.5: Amita Singh, Noreen Nazir, Victor Mor-Avi, and Amit R. Patel: Computed tomography myocardial perfusion12.6: Victoria Delgado: Computed tomography for cardiac morphology, function, and valve disease12.7: Mohamed Marwan and Stephan Achenbach: Computed tomography for cardiac interventionsSection 13. Nuclear cardiology and positron emission tomographySection editor: Philipp Kaufmann13.1: Alessia Gimelli and Riccardo Liga: Basic principles and technological state of the art: SPECT13.2: Frank Bengel: Basic principles and technological state of the art: PET13.3: Ronny R. Buechel and Aju P. Pazhenkottil: Basic principles and technological state of the art: hybrid imaging13.4: Juhani Knuuti, S. Richard Underwood, and Antti Saraste: Assessment of coronary artery disease: chronic stable angina13.5: Juhani Knuuti, S. Richard Underwood, and Antti Saraste: Assessment of coronary artery disease: imaging-guided management and therapy13.6: Danilo Neglia and Juhani Knuuti: Integration of stress nuclear imaging in the diagnostic and management algorithms of stable coronary artery disease13.7: Danilo Neglia and Juhani Knuuti: Assessment of coronary artery disease: nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging in specific patient populations13.8: Danilo Neglia and Oliver Gaemperli: Heart failure13.9: Fabien Hyafil, Dominique Le Guludec, and Oliver Gaemperli: Endocarditis and device infection13.10: Tobias A. Fuchs and Oliver Gaemperli: Infiltrative disease (amyloidosis/sarcoidosis)13.11: Philipp A. Kaufmann, Oliver Gaemperli, and Juhani Knuuti: Future potentialSection 14. Invasive imaging and haemodynamicsSection editor: Carlo Di Mario14.1: Guy Heyndrickx and Carlo Di Mario: Haemodynamic data14.2: Carlo Di Mario, Serafina Valente, and Carlotta Sorini Dini: Coronary Angiography and Ventriculography14.3: Philip Dingli, Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, and Javier Escaned: Intravascular ultrasound imaging14.4: Francesco Prati, Laura Gatto, Enrico Romagnoli, and Luca Di Vito: Optical coherence tomography14.5: Carlo Di Mario, Carlotta Sorini Dini, and Serafina Valente: Near-infrared spectroscopy14.6: Emanuele Barbato and Fabio Mangiacapra: Functional coronary assessment: fractional flow reserve14.7: Justin Davies and Christopher Cook: Functional coronary assessment: instantaneous wave-free ratio and other indicesSection 15. Selection of imaging techniquesSection editor: Jeroen Bax15.1: Jeroen J. Bax, Alexander R. van Rosendael, Laurens F. Tops, Nina Ajmone Marsan, and Victoria Delgado: Choice of imaging techniquesPART 3. Heart DiseasesSection 16 Genetics of cardiovascular diseasesSection editor: Heribert Schunkert16.1: Heribert Schunkert: Introduction16.2: Jodie Ingles, Charlotte Burns, and Laura Yeates: Genetic counselling16.3: Eric Sijbrands: Principles of cascade screening16.4: Eric Schulze-Bahr: Principles of molecular genetic testing16.5: Eric Schulze-Bahr: Basic principles of genetic disease16.6: Andrea Mazzanti, Riccardo Maragna, and Sylvia Priori: Monogenic and oligogenic cardiovascular diseases: genetics of arrhythmias-long QT syndrome16.7: Erol Tülümen and Martin Borggrefe: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - short QT Syndrome16.8: Sonia Van Dooren, Dorien Daneels, Gudrun Pappaert, Maryse Bonduelle, and Pedro Brugada Terradellas: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - Brugada Syndrome16.9: Peter Schwartz and Lia Crotti: Monogenic and oligogenic CV diseases - Genetics of arrhythmias - catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia16.10: Najim Lahrouchi, Elijah Behr, and Connie Bezzina: Post-mortem genetic testing in sudden death cases16.11: Philippe Charron and Carole Maupain: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy16.12: Daniel Oehler, Benjamin Meder, and Hugo Katus: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Dilated cardiomyopathy16.13: Eloisa Arbustini, Alessandro Di Toro, Lorenzo Giuliani, Nupoor Narula, Valentina Favalli: Genetics of cardiomyopathies: left ventricular non-compaction16.14: Kalliopi Pilichou, Cristina Basso, Rudy Celeghin, and Gaetano Thiene: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy16.15: Abdallah Fayssoil: Genetics of cardiomyopathies: cardiac manifestations of genetic mitochondrial diseases16.16: Frank Weidemann: Genetics of cardiomyopathies - Myocardial infiltration16.17: Dorien Schepers and Bart Loeys: Genetics of vascular disease: Marfan syndrome and aortic disease16.18: Daniela Barge-Schaapveld, Marco DeRuiter, Conny van Munsteren, and Monique Jongbloed: Structural diseases of the heart - Genetics of congenital heart diseases16.19: Sabine Klaassen: Structural diseases of the heart: syndromes affecting the cardiovascular system16.20: Heribert Schunkert: Complex Cardiovascular Diseases - Atherosclerosis - genetic factors16.21: Daniel Swerdlow, Steve Humphries, and Michael Holmes: Complex Cardiovascular Diseases - Dyslipidaemias - genetic factors16.22: Patrick Ellinor and Steven Lubitz: Complex cardiovascular diseases: genetic determi nants of atrial fibrillation16.23: Georg Ehert: Complex cardiovascular diseases: the genetics of arterial hypertensionSection 17. Congenital heart disease in children and adultsSection editor: John Deanfield17.1: John Deanfield: Introduction17.2: John Deanfield and Robert Andersen: Nomenclature17.3: John Deanfield and Bernard Keavney: Epidemiology and incidence17.4: Bernard Keavney and Elisavet Fotiou: Aetiology, genes, and environment17.5: Marietta Charakida: Fetal circulation & perinatal programming17.6: John Deanfield: Clinical Presentations & Initial Investigations17.7: Jan Marek, Folkert Meijboom, and Luc Mertens: Echocardiography17.8: Giovanni Biglino, Silvia Schievano, and Andrew Taylor: Cross-Sectional imaging/modelling17.9: Alessandro Giardini: Functional Testing17.10: Henry Chubb and Martin Lowe: Electrophysiological abnormalities and Arrhythmias17.11: Shakeel Qureshi: Interventional catheterization17.12: Michiel Winter, Berto Bouma, Barbara Mulder: Long term Outcomes17.13: Marietta Charakida: Arterial Disease in the Young17.14: Jolien Roos-Hesselink and Lucia Baris: Contraception and pregnancy17.15: Shahin Moledina: Pulmonary Hypertension17.16: Marc Gewillig: Heart Failure17.17: Dilveer Panesar and Mike Burch: Support/Transplantation17.18: Marc Gewillig: Atrial septal defect17.19: Michelle Carr: Atrioventricular septal defect17.20: Orla Franklin: Ventricular septal defect17.21: Robert Yates: Patent ductus arteriosus17.22: Robert Yates: Pulmonary valve stenosis17.23: Robert Yates: Vascular Rings17.24: David Anderson: Aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction17.25: Marietta Charakida: Coarctation17.26: Robert Yates: Tetralogy of Fallot17.27: Sachin Khambadkone: Ebstein's Anomaly17.28: Alessandro Giardini: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome17.29: Marc Gewillig: Single ventricle/total cavopulmonary connection (Fontan circulation)17.30: Marietta Charakida and John Deanfield: Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection17.31: John Deanfield and Marietta Charakida: Complete transposition of the great arteries17.32: Robert Yates and Marietta Charakida: Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteriesSection 18. Prevention in cardiovascular disease and rehabilitationSection editor: Massimo Piepoli18.1: Massimo Piepoli: Introduction18.2: Yvo M. Smulders, Marie-Therese Cooney, and Ian Graham: Cardiovascular risk estimation at the individual level18.3: Guy De Backer, Johan De Sutter, and Ian M. Graham: Risk factor management at the level of the individual using lifestyle changes18.4: Eva Prescott, Torben Jørgensen, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Simon Capewell, and Maja Lisa Løchen: Risk factor intervention at the population level18.5: Ugo Corrà: Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training18.6: Ugo Corrà: Prevention in cardiovascular disease and rehabilitation18.7: Christi Deaton, Margaret Cupples, and Kornelia Kotseva: Settings and stakeholdersSection 19. Diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromeSection editor: Lars Ryden19.1: Lars Ryden: Introduction19.2: Jaakko Tuomilehto and Lars Ryden: Dysglycaemia - Definition, classification and diagnosis19.3: Francesco Cosentino: Vascular complications of dysglycaemia19.4: Nikolaus Marx: Cardiovascular risk assessment in diabetes and pr e-diabetes19.5: Linda Mellbin and Lars Ryden: Preventing cardiovascular complications in patients with dysglycemia19.6: Baris Gencer and Marco Roffi: Special conditions - Acute coronary syndromes19.7: Miguel Sousa Uva: Special conditions - Revascularisation19.8: Karl Swedberg: Diabetes and heart failure19.9: Heikki Huikuri and Lars Ryden: Diabetes and arrhythmias19.10: Lucia Mazzolai, Marianne Brodmann, and Victor Aboyans: Diabetes and lower extremity arterial disease19.11: Henrik Per Groop and Drazenka Pongrac Barlovic: Special conditions: kidney disease19.12: Asa Hornsten: Person centred careSection 20. Heart and the brainSection editor: Hans-Christoph Diener20.1: Hans-Christoph Diener: Acute ischaemic stroke: classification and diagnosis20.2: Christoph Kleinschnitz: Impact of stroke on heart function20.3: Stefan Hohnloser: Causes of cardioembolic stroke20.4: Hans-Christoph Diener: Embolic stroke of undetermined source20.5: Heinrich P. Mattle and Simon Jung: Treatment of acute stroke20.6: David R. Holmes Jr, Guy S. Reeder, and Heinrich Mattle: Closure of a patent foramen ovale for the prevention of stroke20.7: Hans-Christoph Diener: Secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation20.8: Martin O'Donnell and Cliona Small: Management of vascular risk factors and co-morbidities in secondary stroke prevention20.9: Heinrich Mattle, Marcel Arnold, and Urs Fischer: Intracranial haemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulants20.10: Hans-Christoph Diener and John Camm: Atrial Fibrillation and dementiaSection 21. Cardiovascular problems in chronic kidney diseaseSection editor: Christoph Wanner21.1: Stephan Segerer and Harald Seeger: Epidemiology and chronic kidney disease as a cardiovascular risk factor21.2: Thomas F. Mueller and Valerie Luyckx: Causes of death in renal disease21.3: Christoph Wanner: Pathophysiology21.4: Victoria Delgado: Cardiovascular imaging in chronic kidney disease21.5: Stephan Segerer and Harald Seeger: Prevention and drug therapy in chronic kidney disease21.6: Petra Nijst and Wilfried Mullens: Device therapy in chronic kidney disease (implantable cardioverter defibrillator, cardiac resynchronization therapy)21.7: Thomas F. Mueller and Valerie Luyckx: Special considerations in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy and kidney transplant patientsSection 22. Erectile dysfunctionSection editor: Charalambos Vlachopoulos22.1: Piero Montorsi: Sex and the heart22.2: Michael Doumas and Chrysoula Boutari: Erectile dysfunction: definition and size of the problem22.3: Tiny Jaarsma: Asking22.4: Charalambos Vlachopoulos and Nikolaos Ioakeimidis: Erectile dysfunction as a marker and predictor of cardiovascular disease22.5: Geoffrey Hackett: Testosterone, erectile dysfunction, and the heart22.6: Kevan R. Wylie: Sexual function and dysfunction in women (and the effect for the couple)22.7: Michael Kirby: Lifestyle issues22.8: Mike Kirby and Jonny Coxon: Drugs22.9: Odunayo Kalejaiye, Amr Abdel Raheem, and David Ralph: Surgery22.10: Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, and Dimitris Tousoulis: Management of a patient with erectile dysfunction with or without known cardiovascular diseaseSection 23. Lung DiseaseSection editor: Martin Cowie23.1: Kieran Rothnie and Jennifer Quint: Epidemiological relationships between respiratory and cardiovascular diseases23.2: Antia Simonds: Long Term Oxygen Therapy/Ventilation and Cardiovascular outcomes in chronic lung and respiratory disease23.3: Jennifer Quint: Effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treatment on cardiovascular outcome23.4: Michael Polkey: Muscle weakness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure23.5: William Man and Rachael Evans: Pulmonary rehabilitation in Chronic Lung Disease and Heart Failure23.6: Olaf Oldenburg: Sleep apnoea: definition, prevalence and role in cardiovascular diseases23.7: Melissa Lipford and Virend Somers: Sleep Related Breathing Disorders - Classification and diagnosis23.8: Holger Woehrle and Michael Arzt: Sleep apnoea: treatment options and sleep/cardiovascular outcome23.9: Bernardo Selim: Beyond positive airway pressure therapy: experimental and non-conventional treatments in sleep apnoea23.10: Mark Miller, Anoop Shah, Nicholas Mills, and Dave Newby: Atmospheric pollution and cardiovascular risk23.11: Samuel Verges and Patrick Levy: High-altitude pulmonary oedemaSection 24. Gastrointestinal diseaseSection editor: Gerhard Rogler24.1: Gerhard Rogler: Introduction24.2: Eduard F. Stange: Gut microbiome, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis24.3: Slayman Obeid, Melroy Miranda, and Thomas F. Lüscher: Gut microbiota and coronary artery disease24.4: Giuseppe Rosano: The gut and cardiovascular diseases24.5: Gerd A. Kullak-Ublick and Regina Krattinger: Intestinal absorption and drug levels24.6: Felix Stickel, Matteo Montani, and Christian Datz: Chronic heart failure and liver function24.7: Conall Morgan and Luc Mertens: Protein-losing enteropathy associated with heart diseaseSection 25. Rheumatoid arthritis and the heartSection editor: Thomas Lüscher25.1: Thomas F. Lüscher: Introduction25.2: Roland Klingenberg and Ulf Müller-Ladner: Mechanisms of inflammation25.3: Luigi Marzio Biasucci and Giovanna Liuzzo: Inflammatory diseases: inflammation and cardiovascular disease25.4: Oliver Distler and Caroline Ospelt: Rheumatoid arthritis: basic mechanisms in joints25.5: Thomas F. Lüscher and Paul M. Ridker: Anti-inflammatory therapies for cardiovascular disease25.6: Oliver Distler and Adrian Ciurea: Treatment aims in rheumatoid arthritis25.7: Gerhard Rogler: Inflammatory bowel disease: basic mechanisms25.8: Christian M. Matter, Stephan Winnik, and Gerhard Rogler: Inflammatory bowel disease and the heart25.9: Alexander A. Navarini: PsoriasisSection 26. Rheumatic heart diseaseSection editor: Ferande Peters26.1: Ferande Peters: Introduction26.2: Liesl Zühlke: Epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease26.3: Liesl Zühlke: Pathogenesis: from acute rheumatic fever to rheumatic heart disease26.4: Antoinette Cilliers: Clinical features and diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever26.5: Ferande Peters, Ruchika Meel, and Mohammed R. Essop: Echocardiography in acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease26.6: Liesl Zühlke: Prevention and definitive therapy of acute rheumatic fever26.7: Ferande Peters, Mpiko Ntsekhe, and Mohammed Essop: Chronic rheumatic disease26.8: Mohammed Essop, Mpiko Ntsekhe, and Ferande Peters: Clinical scenarios in chronic rheumatic heart disease26.9: Mohammed Essop: Therapeutic options in chronic rheumatic heart diseaseSection 27. Cardio-oncologySection editor: John Groarke27.1: John Groarke: Introduction27.2: Ersilia M. DeFilippis and Anju Nohria: Radiation-induced heart disease: surveillance and management27.3: Cian P. McCarthy, Michael T. Osborne, and Tomas G. Neilan: Surveillance for cardiotoxicity in patients receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy27.4: Daniela Cardinale and Carlo Maria Cipolla: Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity: epidemiology, surveillance, prophylaxis, management, and prognosis27.5: Torbjørn Omland: Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity: epidemiology, surveillance, management, prophylaxis, and prognosis27.6: Mark Sweeney and Alexander Lyon: Cardiovascular complications of novel kinase inhibitors27.7: Daniel J. Lenihan: Cardiovascular complications of novel multiple myeloma treatments27.8: Daniel Perry, Megan Caram, and Monika Leja: Cardiovascular risk in men with prostate cancer27.9: John Keaney: Cardiac arrhythmias and cancer therapiesSection 28. HIVSection editor: Nombulelo P. Magula28.1: Nombulelo P. Magula and Akira Singh: Introduction28.2: Giuseppe Barbaro: Epidemiology of HIV-associated cardiovascular complications28.3: Ntobeko A. B. Ntusi: HIV-associated cardiomyopathy and myocarditis28.4: Rubeshan Perumal and Nombulelo P. Magula: Pericarditis and myopericarditis in HIV28.5: Darrin Ryan Naidoo and Sherlina Kasipersad: Vascular disease: coronary, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease28.6: Anastase Dzudie and Friedrich Thienemann: Pulmonary hypertension: definitions, classification, diagnosis, and management28.7: Nombulelo P. Magula, Rubeshan Perumal, and Ruffin Apalata: Antiretroviral treatmentSection 29. Acute coronary syndromesSection editor: Stefan James29.1: Stefan James and Marco Roffi: Introduction29.2: Michael Joner and Philipp Nicol: The plaque29.3: Héctor Bueno: Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes29.4: Lene Rørholm Pedersen and Eva Prescott: General risk factors of acute coronary syndromes29.5: Giovanna Liuzzo, Daniela Pedicino, and Filippo Crea: Pathophysiology of acute coronary syndromes29.6: Robert Storey and William Parker: Thrombotic response29.7: Pascal Vranckx: Development of myocardial infarction29.8: Christian Mueller: Diagnosis and risk stratification of acute coronary syndromes29.9: Marco Valgimigli and Marco Angelillis: Treatment of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes29.10: Borja Ibanez and Sigrun Halvorsen: Treatment of ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromesSection 30. Takotsubo syndromeSection editor: Christian Templin30.1: Christian Templin: Introduction30.2: Abhiram Prasad: Incidence and definition of takotsubo syndrome30.3: Leonarda Galiuto and Filippo Crea: Mechanisms of takotsubo syndrome30.4: John D. Horowitz, Thanh Ha Nguyen, Sven Y. Surikow, Gao Jing Ong, Cher-Rin Chong, Dana K. Dawson, and Michael P. Frenneaux: Signal transduction pathways initiated by catecholamines in takotsubo syndrome: focus on nitrosative stress and energetic impairment30.5: Jelena R. Ghadri: Triggers of takotsubo syndrome30.6: Ilan Wittstein: Clinical presentation of takotsubo syndrome30.7: Rodolfo Citro and Eduardo Bossone: Diagnostic testing in takotsubo syndrome30.8: Federico Migliore, Sebastiano Gili, and Domenico Corrado: ECG features and arrhythmias in takotsubo syndrome30.9: Ken Kato, Sebastiano Gili, Fabio Fabbian, and Roberto Manfredini: Co-morbidities in takotsubo syndrome30.10: John E. Madias: Management of takotsubo syndrome30.11: Scott W. Sharkey: Takotsubo syndrome complications, outcome, and prognosisSection 31. Chronic ischaemic heart diseaseSection editor: William Wijns31.1: William Wijns: Introduction31.2: Michael Joner, Kristin Steigerwald, and Anna Bulin: Pathology of Stable Coronary Artery Disease31.3: Nils Johnson and K. Gould: Pathophysiology of coronary circulation31.4: Filippo Crea and Gaetano Lanza: Myocardial ischaemia: definition and causes31.5: Christian Seiler: Importance of the Coronary Collateral Circulation31.6: Jeroen Bax: Coronary artery disease: from atherosclerosis to obstructive disease, inducible ischaemia, and the ischaemic cascade31.7: Ulrich Fischer-Rasokat and Christian Hamm: Clinical symptoms of stable ischaemic heart disease31.8: Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste: Non invasive functional evaluation31.9: Stephan Achenbach: Invasive and non-invasive (computed tomography) angiography31.10: Keith Oldroyd and Colin Berry: Invasive functional evaluation31.11: Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, and Javier Escaned: Intracoronary imaging31.12: Vasim Farooq, Patrick Serruys, and Ply Chichareon: Risk stratification and risk scores31.13: Nicolas Danchin, Etienne Puymirat, and Nadia Aissaoui: Medical management: lifestyle and behavioural changes31.14: Aviv Shaul and David Hasdai: Medical management: pharmacological therapy31.15: Jean Claude Tardif, Philippe L'Allier, and Fabien Picard: Myocardial revascularization: symptomatic and prognostic indications31.16: Ruben Osnabrugge and Pieter Kappetein: Cost Effectiveness31.17: Ran Kornowski and Eli Lev: Patient Reported Outcome Measures in Cardiovascular Disease31.18: Ruben Osnabrugge and Pieter Kappetein: Ischaemic heart disease and diabetes31.19: Daniele Giacoppo and Robert Byrne: Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting31.20: Alessia Azzano and Stefan Verheye: Refractory angina31.21: Ward Heggermont, Marc Vanderheyden, and Jozef Bartunek: Chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy31.22: Paolo Camici and Ornella Rimoldi: Microvascular angina31.23: Peter Ong and Udo Sechtem: Vasospastic anginaSection 32. Myocardial diseaseSection editor: Perry Elliott32.1: Perry Elliott: Introduction32.2: Eloisa Arbustini, Valentina Favalli, Alessandro Di Toro, Alessandra Serio, and Jagat Narula: Classification of cardiomyopathies32.3: Claudio Rapezzi and Massimiliano Lorenzini: General approach to diagnosis of cardiomyopathies32.4: Mohammed Akhtar and Luis Lopes: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: genetics32.5: Albert Hagege: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: diagnosis and assessment of symptoms32.6: Iacopo Olivotto: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: medical management of heart failure symptoms and arrhythmias32.7: Steve Omen: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: invasive management of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction32.8: Constantinos O'Mahony: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prevention of sudden cardiac death32.9: Luis Lopes: Dilated cardiomyopathy: genetics32.10: Gianfranco Sinagra, Marco Merlo, and Davide Stolfo: Dilated Cardiomyopathy - Clinical diagnosis and medical management32.11: Pier Lambiase and Rui Providencia: Dilated cardiomyopathy: management of arrhythmia and prevention of sudden cardiac death32.12: Jens Mogensen: Restrictive cardiomyopathy32.13: Petros Syrris and Alexandros Protonotarios: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: genetics32.14: Cristina Basso, Barbara Bauce, and Gaetano Thiene: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: diagnosis32.15: Perry Elliott and Alexandros Protonotarios: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: management of symptoms and prevention of sudden cardiac death32.16: Pablo Garcia-Pavia and Fernando Dominguez: Left ventricular non-compaction: genetics and embryology32.17: Jens Mogensen and Torsten B. Rasmussen: Left ventricular non-compaction: diagnosis and clinical management32.18: Sabine Pankuweit: Myocarditis - Aetiology & histopathological diagnosis32.19: Alida Caforio, Renzo Marcolongo, and Sabino Iliceto: Myocarditis - Clinical presentation32.20: Ali Yilmaz and Anca Florian: Myocarditis: imaging techniques32.21: Peter Heinz Schultheiss and Felicitas Escher: Myocarditis - Treatment of myocarditis32.22: Denis Duboc: The heart in neuromuscular disease: primary mitochondrial diseases32.23: Henning Bundgaard, Anna Axelsson, Alex Christensen, and Helle Petri: The heart in neuromuscular disease: myotonic dystrophy32.24: Karim Wahbi: The Heart in Neuromuscular disease - Duchenne and Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies32.25: Ales Linhart: The heart in inherited metabolic disorders: lysosomal and glycogen storage diseases32.26: Martha Grogan: Cardiac Amyloidosis32.27: Karen Sliwa and Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner: Peripartum Cardiomyopathy32.28: Juan Kaski and Gabrielle Norrish: Childhood cardiomyopathySection 33. Pericardial diseaseSection editor: Yehuda Adler33.1: Michael Arad and Yehuda Adler: Overview of pericardial syndromes33.2: Massimo Imazio, Fiorenzo Gaita, and Yehuda Adler: Acute and recurrent pericarditis33.3: Antonio Brucato and Stefano Maggiolini: Pericardial effusion33.4: Arsen D. Ristic, Petar M. Seferovic, Bernhard Maisch, and Vladimir Kanjuh: Cardiac tamponade33.5: Antonis Pantazis, Karin Klingel, and Yishay Wasserstrum: Constrictive pericarditis33.6: Angelos G. Rigopoulos and Hubert Seggewiss: Pericardial masses and congenital abnormalities33.7: Dor Lotan and Yehuda Adler: Pericardial involvement in neoplastic disease33.8: Massimo Imazio and Fiorenzo Gaita: Multimodality imaging of pericardial diseases33.9: Bernhard Maisch, Arsen Ristic, Sabine Pankuweit, and Peter Seferovic: Interventional therapies for pericardial diseases33.10: George Krasopoulos: Surgical therapies for pericardial disease33.11: Yehuda Adler and Dor Lotan: What next?Section 34. Tumours of the heartSection editor: Gaetano Thiene34.1: Gaetano Thiene, Stefania Rizzo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Marialuisa Valente, and Cristina Basso: Masses and cardiac tumours: classification and diagnosis34.2: Cristina Basso, Stefania Rizzo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Marialuisa Valente, and Gaetano Thiene: Benign cardiac tumours34.3: Cristina Basso, Stefania Rizzo, Marialuisa Valente, Martina Perazzolo Marra, and Gaetano Thiene: Malignant tumours, pericardial tumours, and therapySection 35. Valvular heart diseaseSection editor: Helmut Baumgartner35.1: Bernard Lung and Pieter Kappetein: Introduction and general comments35.2: Pilar Tornos Mas and Emmanuel Lansac: Aortic regurgitation35.3: Helmut Baumgartner and Thomas Walther: Aortic stenosis35.4: Raphael Rosenhek and Michele de Bonis: Mitral regurgitation35.5: Alec Vahanian: Mitral stenosis35.6: Patrizio Lancellotti and Michele de Bonis: Tricuspid regurgitation35.7: Michele DeBonis: Tricuspid stenosis35.8: Michele DeBonis: Combined and multiple valve diseases35.9: Bernard Iung and Johan Sjögren: Prosthetic valves35.10: Johan Holm and Bernard Iung: Management during non-cardiac surgery35.11: Johan Holm and Bernard Iung: Management during pregnancySection 36. Infective endocarditisSection editor: Gilbert Habib36.1: Bernard Iung: Epidemiology and physiopathology36.2: Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, María Nazarena Pizzi, and Pilar Tornos: Diagnosis36.3: Isidre Vilacosta and Carmen Olmos: Prognosis and complications36.4: José A. San Román and Javier López: Prosthetic valve endocarditis36.5: Maria Grazia Bongiorni and Andrea Di Cori: Cardiac device-related endocarditis36.6: José A. San Román and Javier López: Right-sided infective endocarditis36.7: Patrizio Lancellotti and Stella Marchetta: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis36.8: Joey M. Kuijpers, Berto J. Bouma, and Barbara J. M. Mulder: Congenital heart disease36.9: Gilbert Habib: Indications for surgery: guidelines36.10: Jean-François Obadia, Benoit Cosset, and Matteo Pozzi: Surgical techniques36.11: Bruno Hoen and Xavier Duval: Antibiotic prophylaxis and prevention of infective endocarditis36.12: Gilbert Habib: Conclusion and future directionsSection 37. Heart failureSection editor: John McMurray37.1: Theresa McDonagh and Kaushik Guha: Epidemiology of Heart Failure37.2: Pietro Aldo Maggioni and Ovidiu Chioncel: Definition, epidemiology, and burden of disease: HFrEF37.3: Lars Lund and Gianluigi Savarese: Definition, epidemiology, and burden of disease: HFpEF37.4: Anna Stromberg and Tiny Jaarsma: Definitions: quality of life, health, and health-related quality of life37.5: Pardeep Jhund: Chronic heart failure diagnosis: symptoms, signs, and the ECG37.6: Sanjiv Shah and Daniel Silverman: Chronic heart failure diagnosis: HFpEF37.7: Thomas Marwick: Chronic heart failure diagnosis: echocardiography37.8: Robert Manka and Sabrina Oebel: Chronic heart failure diagnosis: cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging37.9: Christian Mueller: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Biomarkers37.10: Perry Elliott: Chronic heart failure diagnosis - Genetics37.11: Vasiliki Bistola, John Parissis, and Gerasimos Filippatos: Estimating prognosis - Prognostic scores37.12: Arthur Richards: Estimating prognosis - Biomarkers37.13: Dipak Kotecha and Mitja Lainscak: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Atrial fibrillation37.14: Mark Petrie and Kieran Doherty: Co-morbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF): diabetes mellitus37.15: Francesco Paneni and Massimo Volpe: Co-morbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF): hypertension37.16: Kevin Damman: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Renal dysfunction37.17: Piotr Ponikowski: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Anaemia/iron deficiency37.18: Stefan Anker and Stephan von Haeling: Co-morbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF): obesity, cachexia, sarcopenia, and the impact of nutrition37.19: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) a Lung disease37.20: Martin Cowie: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Sleep disordered breathing37.21: Thomas Suter: Comorbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF) - Cancer37.22: Luc Pierard: Co-morbidity (HFrEF and HFpEF): valvular heart disease37.23: Rhondalyn Forde-McLean and Mariell Jessup: HFrEF pharmacological treatment: diuretics37.24: Marc Pfeffer: HFrEF pharmacological treatment: ACEIs and/or ARBs37.25: John McMurray: HFrEF pharmacological treatment: angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors37.26: Simon Beggs and Roy Gardner: HFrEF pharmacological treatment: beta blockers37.27: Michel Komajda: HFrEF pharmacological treatment - Ivabradine37.28: John Cleland and Yura Mareev: HFrEF pharmacological treatment: digitalis glycosides37.29: Faraz Ahmad and Clyde Yancy: HFrEF pharmacological treatment - Hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate37.30: Valentina Kutyifa: HFrEF other treatment: indications and results of implantable cardioverter defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy37.31: Eric Velazquez and Mark Petrie: HFrEF other treatment - Revascularization37.32: Randall Starling and Emer Joyce: HFrEF other treatment: ventricular assist devices37.33: Peter MacDonald and Kumud Dhital: Advanced Heart Failure other treatment - Transplantation37.34: Anna Stromberg and Tiny Jaarsma: HFrEF other treatment: nurse-led heart failure management programmes37.35: Maja Cikes and Scott Solomon: HFpEF treatment - Pharmacological therapy37.36: Dirk van Veldhuisen: Patient monitoring in heart failure37.37: Alan Cohen-Solal: Exercise rehabilitation in heart failure37.38: James Beattie: Palliative care in heart failure37.39: Adriaan Voors and Piotr Ponikowski: Acute heart failure - Diagnosis37.40: Javier Martin-Sanchez, Oscar Miro, and Hector Bueno: Acute heart failure - Immediate management/stabilization37.41: Dimitrios Farmakis, John Parissis, and Gerasimos Filippatos: Acute heart failure - TreatmentSection 38. BradycardiaSection editor: Giuseppe Boriani38.1: Giuseppe Boriani: Introduction38.2: Fredrik Gadler and Cinzia Valzania: Aetiology and epidemiology of bradyarrhythmias38.3: Bulent Gorenek and Gulmira Kudaiberdieva: Classification of bradyarrhythmias38.4: Georges H. Mairesse: Methods and tools for the diagnosis of intermittent and persistent bradycardia38.5: Antonio Zaza: Anatomy and physiology of the sinus node38.6: Bruce Wilkoff and Corey Coleman: The sinus node: normal and abnormal chronotropic response and drug effects38.7: Jonathan M. Kalman and Gwilym M. Morris: Sinus node disease: pathophysiology and natural history38.8: Tatjana Potpara: Sinus node disease: ECG patterns and diagnosis38.9: Dominic A. M. J. Theuns: Sinus node disease: the role of electrophysiological testing38.10: Atrial tachyarrhythmias in bradycardiaatachycardia syndrome: characterization and evolution38.11: M. J. Pekka Raatikainen: Anatomy and physiology of the atrioventricular node38.12: S. Serge Barold: Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: ECG patterns and diagnosis38.13: Demosthenes G. Katritsis and Mark E. Josephson: Atrioventricular conduction abnormalities and atrioventricular blocks: role of electrophysiology testing38.14: Drago Fabrizio and Battipaglia Irma: Congenital atrioventricular blocks: clinical presentation, clinical evaluation, and management38.15: Richard Sutton: Carotid sinus syndrome: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management38.16: Hein Heidbuchel: Bradycardia in athletes: clinical evaluation and management38.17: Renato Pietro Ricci: Cardiac pacing: basic concepts38.18: Alexander Bauer: Temporary pacing38.19: Béla Merkely: Permanent cardiac pacing in bradyarrhythmias: device coding38.20: Jens Cosedis Nielsen and Jens Kristensen: Pacing for bradycardia: device features and algorithms and clinical impact38.21: Carsten Israel: Electrocardiographic patterns of cardiac pacemakers: normal and abnormal findings38.22: Anne M. Gillis: Follow-up of pacemaker patients with bradyarrhythmias: scope of follow-up and organizational issues38.23: Johannes Sperzel: Pacemakers in children and adolescents38.24: Jean Claude Deharo: Lead management38.25: Jan Steffel: Electromagnetic interference in pacemaker patients38.26: Giuseppe Boriani and Igor Diemberger: Pacemaker syndromeSection 39. SyncopeSection editor: Michele Brignole39.1: J. Gert van Dijk and Roland D. Thijs: Definition, epidemiology, classification, and pathophysiology39.2: Frederik J. de Lange and J. Gert van Dijk: Diagnostic evaluation39.3: Jean-Claude Deharo: Reflex syncope39.4: Richard Sutton: Cardiac syncope39.5: Artur Fedorowski: Orthostatic intolerance: orthostatic hypotension and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome39.6: Vincent Probst and Jean-Baptiste Gourraud: Unexplained syncope in patients with high risk of sudden cardiac death39.7: Michele Brignole: Recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope (version 2018)Section 40. Supraventricular tachycardiasSection editor: Carina Blomstorm-Lundqvist40.1: Carina Blomström-Lundqvist: Introduction40.2: Gregory Y. H. Lip: Epidemiology of supraventricular tachycardias40.3: Tatjana Potpara: Atrial premature beats40.4: Tatjana Potpara: Definitions, clinical presentation, symptoms, quality of life, and patient preferences40.5: Haran Burri: Differential diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardias40.6: Isabel Deisenhofer: Acute management of supraventricular tachycardias with and without established diagnosis (termination and/or rate regulation of tachycardia)40.7: Isabel Deisenhofer: Management of rapid heartbeats/tachycardias with rhythm or rate control in the absence of ECG-verified diagnosis40.8: Isabel Deisenhofer: Management of specific supraventricular tachycardias40.9: Brian Olshansky: Sinus node-related tachycardias: physiological sinus tachycardia, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, sinus node reentrant tachycardia, and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome40.10: Pierre Jaïs and Nicolas Derval: Atrial tachycardias: focal and multifocal atrial tachycardias40.11: Jose L. Merino: Atrial tachycardias: macroreentrant atrial tachycardias, CTI-dependent atrial flutter (clockwise, anticlockwise), and non-CTI-dependent macroreentrant atrial tachycardia40.12: Demosthenes G. Katritsis: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia40.13: Jonathan Chrispin and Hugh Calkins: Accessory pathways-related tachycardias: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias40.14: Carlo Pappone and Vincenzo Santinelli: Concealed accessory pathways and related tachycardias40.15: Hildegard Tanner: Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia40.16: Carlo Pappone and Vincenzo Santinelli: Pre-excitation related to Mahaim physiology40.17: Jonathan Chrispin and Hugh Calkins: Asymptomatic pre-excitation40.18: Demosthenes G. Katritsis: Non-reentrant junctional tachycardias40.19: Giuseppe Boriani: Health economySection 41. Atrial fibrillationSection editor: John Camm41.1: A. John Camm: Introduction41.2: Emelia Benjamin and Darae Ko: Epidemiology41.3: Ulrich Schotten: Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: electrophysiological basis41.4: David O. Arnar and Hilma Holm: Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: genetics41.5: David R. Van Wagoner: Mechanisms of atrial remodelling41.6: Larissa Fabritz, Ulrich Schotten, and Paulus Kirchhof: Types of atrial fibrillation41.7: Ben Freedman and Nicole Lowres: Silent atrial fibrillation41.8: Justin G. L. M. Luermans, Jordi Heijman, Isabelle C. Van Gelder, and Harry J. G. M. Crijns: Atrial fibrillation progression and prevention41.9: Hein Heidbuchel: Clinical investigation of patients presenting with atrial fibrillation41.10: Christian Sticherling and Michael Kuehne: Management of acute presentation with atrial fibrillation rate control41.11: Riccardo Cappato: Restoration of sinus rhythm: direct current cardioversion41.12: Irina Savelieva: Pharmacological cardioversion for atrial fibrillation41.13: Isabelle C. Van Gelder, Michiel Rienstra, Laurent Pison, and Harry J. G. M. Crijns: Rate control: medical therapy41.14: Maurizio Gasparini and Paola Galimberti: Rate control: ablation and device therapy (ablate and pace)41.15: Juan Tamargo: Rhythm control: antiarrhythmic drugs41.16: Gerhard Hindricks, Nikolaos Dagres, Philipp Sommer, and Andreas Bollmann: Development of atrial fibrillation catheter ablation and ablation strategies41.17: Chawannuch Ruaengsri, Matthew R. Schill, Richard B. Schuessler, and Ralph J. Damiano, Jr: Rhythm control: surgical ablation41.18: Albert L. Waldo: Rate versus rhythm control therapy for atrial fibrillation41.19: Jeroen Hendriks: Follow-up of patients with atrial fibrillation41.20: Gregory Y. H. Lip: Stroke risk factors and risk stratification in atrial fibrillation41.21: Michael D. Ezekowitz and Amanulla N. Khaji: Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation41.22: Margaret C. Fang: Bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation41.23: Thorsten Lewalter, Clemens Jilek, and Peter Sick: Thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation: device therapy and surgical techniques41.24: Eric M. Riles and Melvin Scheinman: Classification and mechanisms of atrial flutter41.25: Bhupesh Pathik and Jonathan M. Kalman: Atrial flutter: clinical presentation41.26: Tilman Maurer, Christine Lemes, and Karl-Heinz Kuck: Atrial flutter: management41.27: Johannes Brachmann: Atrial fibrillation and heart failure41.28: Eduard Guasch and Lluís Mont: Atrial fibrillation and athletes41.29: David Hirsh and Nanette Wenger: Atrial fibrillation in the elderly41.30: Rohan S. Wijesurendra and Barbara Casadei: Atrial fibrillation after cardiopulmonary surgery41.31: Hung-Fat Tse and Jo-Jo Hai: Atrial fibrillation and hypertension41.32: Bernadette Biondi: Atrial fibrillation and hyperthyroidism41.33: Rajiv Mahajan, Dennis H. Lau, and Prashanthan Sanders: Atrial fibrillation and obesity41.34: Jared D. Miller and Hugh G. Calkins: Atrial fibrillation and sleep apnoea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease41.35: Ken Okumura and Hirofumi Tomita: Atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease41.36: Jamie Conti, Mark Panna, and Michael Kaufmann: Atrial fibrillation in pregnancy41.37: Sunil Kapur and Saurabh Kumar: Atrial fibrillation associated with adult congenital heart disease41.38: Jeroen Hendriks: Integrated care management in atrial fibrillation41.39: Deirdre A. Lane: Patient educationSection 42. Ventricular tachycardiaSection editor: Brian Olshansky42.1: Nishant Verma and Bradley P. Knight: Classification of ventricular tachycardias42.2: Sei Iwai and Jason Jacobson: Evaluation and acute management of wide QRS complex tachycardia42.3: Alfred E. Buxton: Classification and treatment of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia42.4: Fernando M. Contreras-Valdes and Peter J. Zimetbaum: Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with structural heart disease: classification, assessment, and initial treatment42.5: Akihiko Nogami: Bundle branch reentry tachycardia42.6: Len Ganz: Electrical storm42.7: Tilman Maurer,William G. Stevenson, and Karl-Heinz Kuck: Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia: the role of catheter ablation42.8: Victor Bazan, Enrique Rodriguez-Font, and Francis E. Marchlinski: Sustained and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia and no associated heart disease (idiopathic ventricular tachycardia)42.9: L. Brent Mitchell: Polymorphic ventricular tachycardias including torsade de pointesSection 43. Sudden Cardiac DeathSection editor: Gerhard Hindricks43.1: Harry Rakowski and Arnon Adler: Epidemiology and underlying substrates43.2: Pedro Brugada Terradellas and Juan Sieira: Arrhythmic mechanisms of sudden cardiac death: bradycardia and tachycardia43.3: Efstathios Iliodromitis and Dimitrios Farmaksis: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in the general population43.4: Nikolaos Dagres and Gerhard Hindricks: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in ischaemic cardiomyopathy43.5: Dietmar Baensch: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in dilated cardiomyopathy43.6: Wilhelm Haverkamp and Philipp Attanasi: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy43.7: Firat Duru and Corinna Brunckhorst: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy43.8: Peter J. Schwartz and Lia Crotti: Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in primary electrical disorders43.9: Juan Fernandez-Armenta, Antonio Berruezo, Juan Acosta, and Diego Penela: New techniques for risk assessment in sudden cardiac death43.10: Efstathios Iliodromitis and Dimitrios Farmaksis: Prevention of sudden cardiac death in the general population43.11: Luigi Di Biase, Jorge Romero, Andrea Natale, Ricardo Avendano, and Mario Garcia: Prevention of sudden cardiac death in ischaemic cardiomyopathy43.12: Jens Cosedis Nielsen and Jens Kristensen: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in ischaemic cardiomyopathy43.13: Riccardo Cappato: Primary prevention of sudden death in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy43.14: Riccardo Cappato: Secondary prevention of sudden death in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy43.15: Barry Maron: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy43.16: Wilhelm Haverkamp and Philipp Attanasio: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy43.17: Katja Zeppenfeld and Sebastiaan Piers: Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy43.18: Katja Zeppenfeld and Sebastiaan Piers: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy43.19: Josep Brugada and Elena Arbelo: Secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death after catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia43.20: Josep Brugada and Elena Arbelo: Prevention of sudden cardiac death in primary electrical disorders43.21: Arash Arya: The implantable cardioverter defibrillator, conclusions on sudden cardiac death, and future perspectiveSection 44. Systemic hypertensionSection editor: Bryan Williams44.1: Stefano Taddei, Rosa Bruno, Masi Stefano, and Anna Solini: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Hypertension44.2: Gianfranco Parati: Blood pressure measurement in hypertension: definition and classification of blood pressure levels44.3: Giovanni De Simone: Target organ damage, cardiovascular disease risk, and clinical evaluation of the hypertensive patient44.4: Isabella Sudano: Secondary causes of hypertension44.5: Bryan Williams: Blood pressure Thresholds for treatment and blood pressure treatment targets in hypertension44.6: Francesco P Cappuccio: Sodium and potassium intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular prevention44.7: Michel Burnier, Sverre Kjeldsen, Anthony Heagerty, and Bryan Williams: Drug treatment of hypertension44.8: Felix Mahfoud: Device based treatment for hypertension44.9: Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, and Massimo Salvetti: Hypertension in Specific conditions / comorbidities44.10: Thomas Kahan: Hypertension in Special situationsPart 4 Vascular diseaseSection 45. Pulmonary HypertensionSection editor: Marc Humbert45.1: Marc Humbert: Introduction45.2: Stephan Rosenkranz: Pulmonary hypertension: definition45.3: Rogerio Souza, Jose Leonidas Alves, and Susana Hoette: Pulmonary hypertension: epidemiology45.4: Christophe Guignabert, Ly Tu, Alice Huertas, and Marc Humbert: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms in Pulmonary Hypertension45.5: Florent Soubrier, Melanie Eyries, Barbara Girerd, David Montani, David Tregouet, and Marc Humbert: Pulmonary hypertension genes as major diagnostic tools45.6: Joanne Groeneveldt, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, and Frances de Man: Mechanisms of right ventricular failure45.7: Marion Delcroix and Catharina Belge: Clinical Presentation of Pulmonary Hypertension45.8: Marion Delcroix and Catharina Belge: Life-threatening complications of pulmonary hypertension45.9: Rogerio Souza, Francisca Oleas, and Caio Fernandes: Pulmonary hypertension: clinical classification45.10: Adam Torbicki: Echocardiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension45.11: John Coghlan: Screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension45.12: Rogerio Souza, Daniela Calderaro, and Luis Felipe Prada: Diagnosis and clinical Investigation of patients presenting with pulmonary hypertension45.13: Stephan Rosenkranz: Management of pulmonary hypertension - Basic treatment45.14: Nazzareno Galie, Alessandra Manes, and Massimiliano Palazzini: Management of pulmonary hypertension: targeted therapies45.15: Nazzareno Galie, Alessandra Manes, and Massimiliano Palazzini: Management of pulmonary hypertension - Treatment algorithm45.16: Laurent Savale: Lung transplantation in pulmonary arterial hypertension45.17: Rogerio Souza, Carlos Jardim, and Luciana Morinaga: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial Hypertension45.18: Nicholas Morrell and Charaka Hadinnapola: Heritable pulmonary arterial Hypertension45.19: Irene Lang and Meinhard Kneussl: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension induced by drugs and toxins45.20: Chris Denton: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension associated with connective tissue disease45.21: Olivier Sitbon and Laurent Savale: Portopulmonary Hypertension45.22: Michael Gatzoulis, Margarita Brida, and Michel Gatzoulis: Pulmonary arterial Hypertension associated with congenital heart diseases45.23: Olivier Sitbon: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension associated with HIV infection45.24: David Montani, Barbara Girerd, Edmund Lau, and Marc Humbert: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and/or pulmonary capillary haemangiomatois45.25: Jean-Luc Vachiery: Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases45.26: Ari Chaouat, Anne Guillaumot, Emmanuel Gomez, Olivier Huttin, Christine Suty-Selton, and Francois Chabot: Pulmonary hypertension due to chronic lung diseases45.27: Gerald Simonneau: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension45.28: Andrew Peacock: 'Group 5' pulmonary hypertension due to multiple and/or unclear mechanisms45.29: Simon Gibbs: Referral centres and patient education45.30: David Montani, Barbara Girerd, and Marc Humbert: Genetic counselling in pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension45.31: Marius Hoeper: Risk assessment and treatment goals in patients presenting with pulmonary arterial hypertension45.32: Marc Humbert: ConclusionSection 46. Diseases of the aortaSection editor: Raimund Erbel46.1: Raimund Erbel: Introduction46.2: Raimund Erbel: The normal aorta46.3: Oliver Gaemperli and Udo Sechtem: Aortic aneurysm - Thoracic aortic aneurysm - Diagnostic approach46.4: Axel Haverich and Andreas Martens: Aortic aneurysm - Thoracic aortic aneurysm - Therapeutic options46.5: Roberto Bartolomeo, Alessandro Leone, Luca Di Marco, and Davide Pacini: Aortic aneurysm - Aortic arch aneurysms46.6: Regula von Allmen: Aortic aneurysm - Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Diagnostic Approach46.7: Regula von Allmen: Aortic aneurysm - Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Therapeutic options46.8: Yuvrajsinh Parmar and I. Kronzon: Aortic sclerosis - Clinical signs and diagnosis46.9: Raimund Erbel: Aortic sclerosis - Therapy46.10: Riccardo Gorla, Eduardo Bossone, and Raimund Erbel: Acute aortic syndrome - Diagnostic strategy and clinical features46.11: Toru Suzuki, Riccardo Gorla, and Eduardo Bossone: Acute aortic syndrome: emerging role of biomarkers46.12: Christoph Starck, Robert Hammerschmidt, and Volkmar Falk: Acute aortic syndrome - Aortic dissection - Ascending aortic dissection46.13: Rachel Clough, Xun Yuan, and Chirstoph Nienaber: Acute aortic syndrome - Aortic dissection - Descending aortic dissection46.14: Jae-Kwan Song: Acute aortic syndrome - Intramural Haematoma46.15: Arturo Evangelista and Jose Rodriguez-Palomares: Penetrating aortic ulcer46.16: Johnny Steuer and Mario Lachat: Acute aortic syndrome - Traumatic aortic injury46.17: Ivan Nunez-Gil and Gisela Feltes: Acute aortic syndrome - latrogenic aortic trauma46.18: Dorien Schepers and Bart Loeys: Genetic diseases of the aorta - Chromosomal and inherited diseases46.19: Bernard Lung: Genetic diseases of the aorta: aortic diseases related to Marfan syndrome and other genetic abnormalities46.20: Folkert Meijboom and Gertjan Sieswerda: Genetic diseases of the aorta - Aortic diseases associated with bicuspid aortic valves46.21: Rosangela Cocchia, Riccardo Gorla, and Eduardo Bossone: Aortitis - infectious and non-infectious diseases46.22: Francesca Urgnani and Vicente Riambau: Aortic tumor46.23: Udo Sechtem and Oliver Gaemperli: Long-term follow-up in patients with aortic diseases46.24: Raimund Erbel: Aortic centresSection 47. Trauma to the cardiovascular systemSection editor: Christoph Nienaber47.1: Ibrahim Akin and Christoph A. Nienaber: Trauma to the cardiovascular systemSection 48. Non-cardiac surgerySection editor: Steen Kristensen48.1: Hans Erik Botker: Introduction and epidemiology48.2: Jose Gonzalez-Juanatey: Preoperative evaluation: surgical risk for cardiac events and functional capacity risk indices48.3: Emmanuelle Duceppe and P.J. Devereaux: Preoperative evaluation - Biomarkers48.4: Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste: Preoperative evaluation - Non Invasive testing48.5: Hans Erik Botker: Preoperative evaluation - Angiography48.6: Emmanuelle Duceppe and P.J. Devereaux: Risk reduction strategies: perioperative management of cardiovascular medication48.7: Steen Kristensen, Michael Maeng, and Kurt Huber: Risk reduction strategies: perioperative management in patients on antithrombotic therapy48.8: Marco Roffi and Fabio Rigamonti: Risk reduction strategies: coronary revascularization before non-cardiac surgery48.9: Rodrigo Modolo and Ana Paula de Faria: Specific diseases: chronic heart failure/hypertension48.10: Bernard Iung and Luc Pierard: Specific diseases: valvular heart disease48.11: Susanna Price and Evi Christodoulou: Specific diseases: arrhythmias48.12: Susanna Price: Specific diseases: renal disease48.13: Marco Roffi: Specific diseases: stroke48.14: Susanna Price: Specific diseases: pulmonary diseases48.15: Luc Pierard: Perioperative monitoring: transoesophageal echocardiography48.16: Susanna Price: Perioperative Monitoring - Right Heart catherization48.17: Susanna Price: Perioperative monitoring: glycaemic control48.18: Stefan De Hert: Perioperative monitoring: anaesthesiology48.19: Juhani Knuuti and Antti Saraste: Conclusions and recommendationsSection 49. Peripheral arterial diseasesSection editor: Victor Aboyans49.1: V Aboyans: Introduction49.2: Marie-Louise Bartelink: Epidemiology and risk factors49.3: Lucia Mazzolai: General aspects49.4: Jean Philippe Collet: Antithrombotic drugs in peripheral arterial diseases49.5: Ross Naylor: Extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease49.6: Tina Conhert: Upper extremity artery disease49.7: Martin Björck: Mesenteric artery disease49.8: Charalambos Vlachopoulos: Renal artery disease49.9: Marianne Brodmann: Lower extremity artery disease49.10: Marco DeCarlo: Multisite artery disease49.11: Michal Tendera: Cardiac conditions in peripheral arterial diseases49.12: JB Ricco: Gaps in evidenceSection 50. Venous thromboembolismSection editor: Stavros Konstantinides50.1: Stavros Konstantinides: Introduction50.2: Alexander Cohen, Marjolein Brekelmans, and Carlos Martinez: Epidemiology and socioeconomic consequences of venous thromboembolism50.3: Willem Lijfering and Suzanne Cannegieter: Predisposing factors for first and recurrent venous thrombosis50.4: Dieuwertje Ruigrok and Anton Vonk Noordegraaf: Pathophysiology of acute pulmonary embolism50.5: Piotr Pruszczyk: Diagnosis - clinical prediction rules and laboratory tests50.6: Helia Robert-Ebadi, Gregoire Le Gal, and Marc Righini: Diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism and evolving imaging modalities50.7: Cecilia Becattini and Giancarlo Agnelli: Prognostic assessment50.8: Thomas Vanassche and Peter Verhamme: Treatment - haemodynamic and respiratory support50.9: Cecilia Becattini and Giancarlo Agnelli: Treatment - anticoagulation50.10: Guy Meyer: Treatment - thrombolysis50.11: Ronald Winokur and Akhilesh Sista: Treatment: catheter-based intervention and inferior vena cava filters50.12: Thijs van Mens and Saskia Middeldrop: Management of pulmonary embolism in pregnancy50.13: Cihan Ay and Florian Posch: Management of pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer50.14: Marc Rodger, Lisa Duffett, and Faizan Khan: Risk of recurrence and optimal duration of anticoagulation50.15: Irene Lang,Walter Klepetko, and Hiromi Matsubara: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertensionSection 51. Venous diseaseSection editor: Sebastien Schellong51.1: Eberhard Rabe and Felizitas Pannier: Epidemiology and classification of venous disease51.2: Frederikus Klok, Charlotte Dronkers, and Menno Huisman: Imaging for venous thrombosis51.3: Jochen Grommes: Venous recanalisation51.4: Roshan Bootun, Tristan Lane, and Alun H. Davies: Varicose veins51.5: Robert Eberhardt and Joseph Raffetto: Chronic venous insufficiency and post-thrombotic syndromePART 5. Specific Populations - gender and raceSection 52. Cardiovascular disease in womenSection editor: Noel Bairey Merz52.1: JoAnn E. Manson and Mariana Garcia: Background52.2: Eva Prescott: Sex and gender differences overview52.3: Karin Schenck-Gustafsson: Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors52.4: Angela H. E. M. Maas: Non-traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors unique to or predominant in women52.5: Janet Wei: Cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines52.6: Martha Gulati: Ischaemic heart disease in women52.7: Vera Regitz-Zagrosek: Heart failure in women52.8: Sharon Mulvagh: Valvular heart disease52.9: Puja K. Mehta: Cardiac rehabilitation52.10: Mariana Garcia: Peripheral arterial disease in women52.11: C. Noel Bairey Merz: Future directionsSection 53. Pregnancy and heart diseaseSection editor: Vera Regitz-Zagrosek53.1a: Janet Wei and C. Noel Bairey Merz: General considerations53.1b: Petronella Pieper: Pregnancy risk assessment53.2: Lisa-Antonia Droege and Wolfgang Henrich: Gynaecological, obstetric, and neonatological aspects53.3a: Jolien Roos-Hesselink and Annemien van den Bosch: Congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension53.3b: Bernard Iung: Aortic diseases53.4: Petronella G. Pieper and Bernard Iung: Valvular heart disease53.5: Angela H. E. M. Maas: Ischaemic heart disease in pregnancy53.6: Bozena Ostrowska, Barbara Kommata, Helena Malmborg, and Carina Blomström Lundqvist: Arrhythmias in pregnancy53.7: Vera Regitz-Zagrosek: Cardiomyopathies and heart failure53.8: Renata Cifkova: Hypertensive disorders53.9: Karen Sliwa and Mark R. Johnson: Venous thromboembolism in the peripartum period53.10: Stefan Verlohren: Drugs during pregnancy and breastfeedingSection 54. EthnicitySection editor: Gregory H. Y. Lip54.1: Amitava Banerjee: Global perspectives of hypertension and cardiovascular disease54.2: Nizal Sarrafzadegan and Farzad Masoudkabir: Ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factors54.3: Adam Timmis: Ethnicity and coronary artery disease54.4: Bert-Jan van den Born and Charles Agyemang: Ethnicity and hypertension54.5: Tatjana Potpara: Ethnicity and cardiac arrhythmias54.6: Amitava Banerjee: Ethnicity and heart failure54.7: Larissa Fabritz: Ethnicity and inherited cardiac disease54.8: Bernard M. Y. Cheung and Esther W. Chan: Ethnic differences in responses to cardiovascular drugsPART 6. Other aspectsSection 55. Sports and heart diseaseSection editor: Antonio Pelliccia55.1: Michael Papadakis and Sanjay Sharma: Cardiovascular adaptation to exercise and sport (according to type of sport, gender, and ethnicity)55.2: Clinical assessment of the athleteas heart: normal and abnormal ECGs in athletes55.3: Antonio Pelliccia and Stefano Caselli: Imaging testing for differential diagnosis of the athlete's heart from structural cardiac diseases55.4: Eduard Guasch, Hein Heidbuchel, and Lluís Mont: Sudden cardiac death in athletes: implications for pre-participation evaluation and safety in sport arenas55.5: Massimo Piepoli: Exercise and sport in the management of cardiovascular diseases (ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, and hypertension)Section 56. ElderlySection editor: Franz Messerli and Tomasz Grodzicki56.1: Tomasz Grodzicki, Karolina Piotrowicz, and Jonna Sulicka: Multimorbidity and polypharmacy in the elderly with cardiovascular diseases56.2: Piotr Sobanski: Palliative and end-of-life care in elderly subjects with cardiovascular disease56.3: Timo Strandberg and Tuomo Nieminen: Dementia and cardiovascular diseases56.4: Antonio Cherubini and Massimiliano Fedecostante: Frailty, sarcopenia, and falls in cardiovascular disease56.5: Nicola Veronese, Ludovico Carrino, and Stefania Maggi: Socioeconomic issues and cardiovascular disease (with emphasis on the caregivers)56.6: Andreas Schoenenberger: Comprehensive geriatric assessment in cardiovascular disease56.7: Edgar Argulian: Degenerative cardiovascular disease in elderly56.8: Stefano Rimoldi: Lessons from European Society of Cardiology Guidelines56.9: Jerzy Gasowski, Chirag Bavishi, and Franz Messerli: Arterial stiffness: from isolated systolic hypertension to syncope56.10: Joanna Kostka, Malgorzata Koziarska-Rosciszewska, and Tomasz Kostka: Arterial stiffness: from isolated systolic hypertension to syncope56.11: Adrian Messerli and Khaled Ziada: Interventions in the elderly: special considerationsSection 57. Precision medicineSection editor: Paulus Kirchhof57.1: Paulus Kirchhof: Personalized medicine: an introduction57.2: T. Kessler and Heribert Schunkert: Personalized management of coronary artery disease57.3: Karin Sipido and Tom Guzik: Disease mechanisms guiding therapy57.4: Larissa Fabritz, Eduard Guasch, Moritz Sinner, and Paulus Kirchhof: Personalised management of atrial fibrillation57.5: Stephan Baldus and Henrik ten Freyhaus: Individualized valve therapy57.6: Marina Cerrone, Morten Schak Nielsen, and Mario Delmar: Genetically-modified animals as tools to personalize the study of arrhythmia mechanisms and treatment57.7: Simon de Denus, Marie-Pierre Dubé, and Jean-Claude Tardif: Opportunities for personalized approaches in heart failure57.8: Andrea Mazzanti and Silvia Priori: Personalized Therapies for Cardiac ChannelopathiesSection 58. Decision-making and Heart TeamSection editor: Patrick Serruys58.1: Vasim Farooq and Patrick W. Serruys: The Heart Team: introduction58.2: Vasim Farooq: Heart Teams in coronary artery disease58.3: Mohammad Abdelghani, Fahd Makhdom, and Nicolo Piazza: Decision-making and Heart Teams in valvular heart disease: the transcatheter aortic valve implantation team model58.4: Manuel Castella, Hans-Christoph Diener, Gerhard Hindricks, and Paulus Kirchhof: Heart Teams in atrial fibrillation58.5: Mohammad Abdelghani, Martina Nassif, Nico A. Blom, David R. Koolbergen, Barbara J. M. Mulder, and Robbert J. de Winter: Heart Teams in grown-up congenital heart disease58.6: Andras P. Durko, Stuart J. Head, and David P. Taggart: The Heart Team: conclusions and future perspectivesSection 59. Psychological factors and heart diseaseSectione editor: Susanne Pedersen59.1: Susanne Pedersen: Introduction59.2: Susanne Pedersen: Psychological factors and incident heart disease59.3: Frank Doyle: Psychological impact of heart disease59.4: Nina Kupper and Johan Denollet: Impact of psychological factors on outcomes59.5: Roland von Kaenel and Christian Albus: Mechanisms: psychological factors and outcomes59.6: Johan Denollet: The wider psychosocial context59.7: Matt Burg: Interventions: what works for whom?59.8: Kim Smolderen: Clinical implications and future perspectives59.9: Susanne Pedersen: Conclusions59.10: Susanne Pedersen: Likely developments over the next 5-10 years59.11: Susanne Pedersen: Personal perspectiveSection 60. Interpretation of clinical trialsSection editor: John Cleland60.1: John Cleland: Trial Design from a Clinical Perspective60.2: Tim Friede: Clinical Trial Design: Statistical Issues60.3: Muthiah Vaduganathan and Scott Solomon: Reporting Cardiovascular Clinical Trials60.4: Jan Tijssen: Principles and methods of intervention research60.5: Pardeep Jhund and John McMurray: Interpretation60.6: Colin Baigent and Natalie Staplin: Meta-analysisSection 61. EnvironmentSection editor: Thomas Münzel61.1: Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette Sørensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook: Summary61.2: Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette Sørensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook: Introduction61.3: Thomas Münzel and Mette Sørensen: Pathophysiology of noise-induced cardiovascular diseases61.4: Robert D. Brook, David Newby, and Sanjay Rajagopalan: Pathophysiology of air pollution-mediated cardiovascular events61.5: Mette Sørensen and Thomas Münzel: Epidemiology of traffic noise and cardiometabolic disease61.6: Robert D. Brook, David Newby, and Sanjay Rajagopalan: Epidemiology of air pollution and cardiometabolic diseases61.7: Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette Sørensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook: Strategies to mitigate cardiovascular effects of noise and air pollution61.8: Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette Sørensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook: Future perspectives61.9: Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette Sørensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook: Conclusions61.10: Thomas Münzel, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Mette Sørensen, Dave Newby, and Robert D. Brook: Development and challenges over the next decadeSection 62. Occupational and regulatory aspectsSection editor: Demosthenes Katritsis62.1: Demosthenes G. Katritsis, Mark Anderson, and Michael M. Webb-Peploe: Occupational risk factors for heart disease62.2: Demosthenes G. Katritsis, Mark Anderson, and Michael M. Webb-Peploe: Regulations concerning individual risk and public safetySection 63. Economics and cost-effectivenessSection editor: Lorenzo Mantovani63.1: Lorenzo Mantovani: Introduction to health economics and cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular prevention63.2: Dyfrig Hughes: Health and economic impact of non-adherence to preventative cardiovascular medicines63.3: Giuseppe Boriani, Lucia D'Angiolella, and Fabiana Madotto: Economics of new therapies in electrophysiology63.4: Zaher Fanari, Sandra Weiss, and William S. Weintraub: Medical economics and interventional cardiology63.5: Lorenzo Mantovani and Lucia S. D'Angiolella: Economics of new therapies for heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and hypercholesterolaemiaPART 7. AppendicesA.1: Ian Graham, Marie Therese Cooney, Dirk De Bacquer, and Maryam Kavousi: Cardiovascular disease risk estimationA.2: Polly Mitchell, Andrew Wragg, and Adam Timmis: Patient reported outcome measures