Dental caries : the disease and its clinical management
First published in 2003, Dental Caries: The Disease and its Clinical Management has become the leading resource on cariology.
Print Book, English, 2015
Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2015
xiv, 466 Seiten : Illustrationen (some color)
Contributors xi Part I Dental caries: what is it and how widespread is it globally? Chapter 1 Prologue 3O. Fejerskov, B. Nyvad, and E.A.M. Kidd Introduction 3 The role of cariology in restorative dentistry 3 The content of this textbook 4 Chapter 2 Dental caries: what is it? 7O. Fejerskov, B. Nyvad, and E.A.M. Kidd The disease 7 Terminology 9 Background literature 9 References 10 Chapter 3 Clinical features of caries lesions 11O. Fejerskov and B. Nyvad What do caries lesions look like clinically? 11 The deciduous dentition 12 The permanent dentition 13 Chapter 4 How big is the problem? Epidemiological features of dental caries 21V. Baelum and O. Fejerskov Introduction 21 What? Defining the health issue at hand 21 Who? The distribution of caries in populations 28 Where? The geography of caries 35 When? Trends in caries 37 Why? The causes of caries 37 References 41 Part II The caries lesion and its biological determinants Chapter 5 Pathology of dental caries 49O. Fejerskov Introduction 49 Human dental enamel at time of eruption 51 Enamel changes during early caries lesion development 55 The approximal white spot lesion 58 Progression of the enamel lesion 63 Arrest of the caries lesion 63 Occlusal caries 66 Dentin reactions to caries progression 71 Pulpo‐dentinal reactions 71 Root‐surface caries 77 Background literature 80 References 80 Chapter 6 Saliva and caries development 83A. Bardow and A. Vissink Introduction 83 Saliva and salivary glands 84 Saliva and caries development: biological aspects 87 Saliva and caries development: clinical aspects 98 Evaluation of salivary gland function 101 Management of salivary gland hypofunction 104 Concluding remarks 105 Background literature 105 References 105 Chapter 7 Biofilms in caries development 107P.D. Marsh, N. Takahashi, and B. Nyvad Introduction 107 The resident microflora 108 Dental biofilms: development, structure, composition, and properties 111 Caries microbiology: a brief historical perspective 121 Methodological problems in microbiological studies of dental caries 121 Microbiology of caries 122 Cariogenic features of dental biofilm bacteria 125 The ‘ecological plaque hypothesis’ to explain the role of dental biofilm bacteria in the etiology of dental caries 125 Concluding remarks 129 Background literature 129 References 129 Chapter 8 Diet and dental caries 133C. van Loveren and P. Lingström History 133 Early ecological studies 134 Experimental human studies 134 Influence of fluoride on the diet–caries relationship 135 Measuring cariogenicity 136 Sweeteners 141 Protective factors in foods 149 Diet and dental erosion 150 Conclusion 151 References 151 Chapter 9 Demineralization and remineralization: the key to understanding clinical manifestations of dental caries 155O. Fejerskov and M.J. Larsen Introduction 155 Enamel mineral 156 Stability of calcium phosphates 156 Crystal dissolution 157 Why is apatite solubility increased by acid? 158 Effect of carbonate and fluoride on apatite dissolution and growth 159 Demineralization and remineralization of the dental hard tissues 160 Caries demineralization 162 Remineralization of enamel 164 Remineralization of dentin 166 Background literature 169 References 170 Part III Diagnosis Chapter 10 The foundations of good diagnostic practice 173V. Baelum, B. Nyvad, H.‐G. Gröndahl, and O. Fejerskov Introduction 173 The making of a dentist 174 The dental examination: in the best interest of our patients 175 What are we looking for? What is caries? 176 The wealth of caries diagnostic methods and criteria 178 The evolution in caries diagnostic methods 178 Diagnostic test assessment in the essentialistic gold‐standard paradigm 179 Evaluating caries diagnostic methods 180 Leaps in the essentialistic gold‐standard reasoning 181 Diagnostic test evaluation in the nominalistic caries paradigm 183 Inter‐ and intra‐examiner errors in caries diagnosis 184 How do we deal with the unavoidable diagnostic uncertainty? 185 The additional diagnostic yield argument 186 Concluding remarks 187 References 188 Chapter 11 Visual–tactile caries diagnosis 191B. Nyvad, V. Machiulskiene, V.M. Soviero, and V. Baelum Introduction 191 The diagnostic process 192 Why do we diagnose caries? 193 Diagnosis from a dental caries perspective 193 How early should caries lesions be detected? 194 What are the best visual–tactile caries diagnostic criteria? 195 Commonly used visual–tactile criteria 197 Differential diagnosis 201 Visual–tactile caries examination: a systematic clinical approach 205 Additional aids in visual–tactile caries diagnosis 207 Benefits and limitations of visual–tactile caries diagnosis 208 References 209 Chapter 12 Additional caries detection methods 211H. Hintze, A. Lussi, F. Cuisinier, and B. Nyvad Introduction 211 Radiography 211 Methods based on light and electrical current 223 Are the additional methods suitable for use in clinical practice? 229 Can the methods serve as adjuncts to a visual–tactile caries examination? 229 References 229 Part IV Controlling dental caries Chapter 13 The caries control concept 235B. Nyvad and O. Fejerskov Why the caries control concept should replace caries prevention 235 How caries control was managed in the past 236 Arrest of active enamel caries 237 Arrest of active root caries 238 Arrest of active cavitated caries 239 Role of fluoride in lesion arrest 242 Benefits and limitations of the caries control approach – and some recommendations 242 References 242 Chapter 14 Fluorides in caries control 245O. Fejerskov, J.A. Cury, L.M. Tenuta, and V.C. Marinho Introduction 245 Fluoride in caries prevention and control 246 Cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride 250 Dental fluorosis and metabolism of fluoride 253 The effectiveness of fluorides in the control of dental caries: evidence from systematic reviews 263 Rational use of fluorides in caries control in different parts of the world: recommendations 271 Background literature 272 References 272 Chapter 15 The role of oral hygiene 277B. Nyvad Introduction 277 Some theoretical considerations 277 The biological effect of tooth cleaning 278 The clinical effect of tooth cleaning 278 The effect of professional tooth cleaning 282 The effect of dental flossing 283 Concluding remarks 283 References 284 Chapter 16 Are antibacterials necessary in caries prophylaxis? 287A.A. Scheie, H.V. Rukke, and F.C. Petersen The biofilm lifestyle and the rationale for antibacterial intervention 287 Biological activity and mode of action 288 Vehicles for caries prophylactic agents 292 Specific agents 292 Other agents proposed for caries prophylaxis, but without documented anticaries effects 296 Risk of antibacterial resistance development? 298 Concluding remarks and future approaches 299 Background literature 299 References 299 Chapter 17 The principles of caries control for the individual patient 303B. Nyvad and E.A.M. Kidd Introduction 303 How are current caries activity and risk of future caries progression assessed? 304 How is the information used to categorize patients into risk groups? 307 What nonoperative treatments are available? 308 How is the individual helped to control disease progression? 312 When should the patient be recalled? 312 Caries control in children and adolescents 314 Patients with a dry mouth 317 Failure 318 References 319 Chapter 18 Caries control for frail elders 321M.I. MacEntee, S.R. Bryant, H. Keller, C.T. Nguyen, and C.S. Yao Introduction 321 A conceptual model of oral health 321 Frailty 322 Physical characteristics of caries in elderly mouths 323 Incidence of caries in frail adults 323 Recognizing the risk of caries 324 Impact of caries in frailty 326 Management of caries in frailty 327 Summary 329 References 330 Part V Operative intervention Chapter 19 Classical restorative or the minimally invasive concept? 335E.A.M. Kidd, J. Frencken, B. Nyvad, C.H. Splieth, and N.J.M. Opdam Operative dentistry and caries control 335 Sealants 339 Atraumatic restorative treatment 345 Conventional minimal intervention methods 353 Minimal intervention and the deciduous dentition 365 References 370 Chapter 20 Caries ‘removal’ and the pulpo‐dentinal complex 375E.A.M. Kidd, L. Bjørndal, and O. Fejerskov Introduction 375 The pulpo‐dentinal complex and caries 376 Pulpitis and its clinical diagnosis 376 Why are pulpo‐dentinal reactions important to the choice of operative management? 376 The infected dentin concept and its clinical consequence 377 Studies placing fissure sealants over carious dentin 379 Stepwise excavation studies 380 Randomized controlled clinical trials on stepwise excavation outcome 382 Do we need to reenter? 382 What happens if we do not remove caries at all but seal it in the tooth permanently? 384 Further consideration of deciduous teeth 384 Conclusion on caries removal and the pulpo‐dentinal complex 385 References 385 Chapter 21 Longevity of restorations: ‘the death spiral’ 387V. Qvist Introduction 387 Clinical assessment of restorations 388 Assessment of restoration longevity 388 The amalgam debate and its consequences for restoration longevity 391 Longevity of restorations in the primary dentition 391 Longevity of restorations in the permanent dentition 394 Longevity of fissure sealants 395 Longevity of atraumatic restorative treatment restorations 396 Factors influencing restoration longevity 397 Consequences of restoration longevity for dental health and cost 398 Concluding remarks 399 References 400 Part VI From chair‐side to population caries control Chapter 22 Caries prevention and control in low‐ and middle‐income countries 405W. van Palenstein Helderman, C. Holmgren, B. Monse, and H. Benzian Introduction 405 Caries: a public health problem in low‐ and middle‐income countries 406 Health and oral health systems in low‐ and middle‐income countries 408 Public health approaches to address caries in low‐ and middle‐income countries 411 Conclusions and recommendations 417 References 420 Chapter 23 How accurately can we assess the risk for developing caries lesions? 423H. Hausen and V. Baelum Introduction 423 The risk of developing caries lesions cannot be observed directly for an individual patient 424 The course of a typical study for evaluating the accuracy of a prediction 425 A real‐life example of using a single, dichotomous predictor 427 Interpretation and use of the measures of prediction accuracy 427 What level of accuracy would be sufficient in everyday practice? 432 What level of accuracy can be achieved? 433 Clinical caries risk assessment: is it possible? 435 How valuable are the proposed measures? 436 Concluding remarks 436 Background literature 436 References 436 Chapter 24 Caries control in low‐caries populations 439H. Hausen, M. Jøssing, and O. Fejerskov Introduction 439 A low caries frequency entails the polarization of the caries problem 439 Are effective and feasible measures available for protecting the high‐risk individuals from dental decay? 440 Noninvasive treatment of early caries lesions among teenagers exposed to community‐wide oral health promotion 441 A model for controlling caries in low‐caries child populations 442 A demonstration case in 0–18‐year‐old Danes 443 Concluding remarks 446 References 447 Chapter 25 Epilogue. Controlling the global burden of dental caries: the evidence calls for a reorganization of the oral health‐care system 449O. Fejerskov, V. Baelum, B. Nyvad, and E.A.M. Kidd Index 453